Vol 15 No 3 (2020)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 319 | views: 357 | pages: 290-298

    Background: Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease distributed worldwide. It comprises cystic and alveolar forms, the former being the more prevalent disease. Imaging techniques are the first choice for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis and serology is used as an additional diagnostic technique in doubtful cases or as the sole test in low-resource settings. Rapid diagnostic tests are useful and convenient for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in endemic areas, where medical facilities often struggle with limited resources.

    Methods: Recently, we have developed Hyd Rapid™, an IgG4 lateral flow dipstick test using recombinant antigen B1 for detection of cystic echinococcosis. This study was performed between 2016 until 2018 at the Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The diagnostic performance of Hyd Rapid™ was tested in-house and at two international laboratories in Switzerland and Iran.

    Results: The overall diagnostic sensitivity for detection of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis was 95% (56/59). Meanwhile, the diagnostic specificity, with and without exclusion of cysticercosis and fascioliasis, was 100% (n=48) and 88% (63/72), respectively.

    Conclusion: Hyd Rapid™ detected cystic echinococcosis as well as probable cases of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, Hyd Rapid™ showed good potential as a serological tool for echinococcosis, and merits further evaluation.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 190 | views: 349 | pages: 299-306

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) causes an important parasitic infection known as toxoplasmosis, which is a globally distributed important zoonosis. One of the major serious characteristics of T. gondii is its ability to manipulate the behavior of intermediate hosts. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine toxoplasmosis in schizophrenic patients, as one of the major neuropsychiatric disorders, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technic by targeting parasite B1 gene.

    Methods: Blood samples were taken from 118 schizophrenic patients hospitalized in tow hospitals including Baharan, Clinic of Psychiatric Ali-ibn-Abi-Talib Hospital (in Zahedan City), and Amir-al Momenin Psychiatric Hospital (in Zabol City), Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeast Iran in 2016. They were analyzed using LAMP, and compared with the previous data of nested-PCR and serology.

    Results: Out of the 118 schizophrenic individuals, 56 patients (47.4%) were found to be infected with T. gondii. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 41 patients (34.7%) via the nested-PCR. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in schizophrenic patients was 55.9% (66/118).

    Conclusion: We found a high efficiency of LAMP method in identifying toxoplasmosis and its high prevalence among schizophrenic patients. Our findings could provide viable offer implications for the prevention of schizophrenia.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 169 | views: 482 | pages: 307-314

    Background: Clinically, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be confused with granulomatous diseases and skin cancers, and it may lead to erroneous diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis based and histopathology can have some difficulties due to low number of parasites, especially in chronic CL cases. We aimed to emphasize the necessity of considering CL in the differential diagnosis for cases of granulomatous diseases and basal cell carcinoma, particularly in areas where CL is endemic.

    Methods:  One hundred and seven paraffin-embedded tissue biopsy specimens were selected from the archive, as of 2002, of Pathology Department, School of Medicine, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal in Hatay, Turkey. After DNA isolation, performed with the samples were used for PCR analysis with specific 13A, 13B primers targeting kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) found in all Leishmania species. Another PCR was performed with LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting ITS-1 internal-transcribed-spacer-1 (ITS-1) region to subtype positive samples. Then these samples were further analyzed for subtyping with PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme (BsuRI).

    Results: Ten out of 107 tissue specimens were positive via kDNA-PCR. Lupus vulgaris, sarcoidosis, skin lymphoma and Leishmania cutis appeared in 9 out of 10 positive specimens. One of the cases presented with a mass on the cheek and was pre-diagnosed with hemangioma, but leishmaniasis did not appear. All of 10 specimens were diagnosed as granulomatous dermatitis. Two out of 10 samples, found positive with kDNA-PCR, were analyzed with ITS-1-PCR and identified as L. infantum/donovani after RFLP.

    Conclusion: Molecular methods should be utilized in the differential diagnosis of CL to eliminate false diagnoses of granulomatous diseases and skin cancers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 211 | views: 335 | pages: 315-320

    Background: The environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs increases the risk of dissemination and transmission of the parasite in dogs and paratenic hosts such as humans. We aimed to evaluate different disinfectants to compare their effect on T. canis eggs.

    Methods: For its realization, 850 embryonated eggs were obtained, which were suspended in a solution of 5% formaldehyde and distilled water in Eppendorf tubes. In the tubes containing the 850 embryonated eggs, researchers was added 0.5 mL of each solution (enzymatic solution, sodium hypochlorite, iodopovidone, quaternary of ammonium, benzalkonium chloride, and super oxidation solution). After mixing, an aliquot was taken, observed under the microscope, and the number of broken eggs counted at different times to find the most effective ovicidal moment.

    Results: The enzymatic disinfectant present a significant difference (P = 0.05) with 276.06 broken eggs followed by ammonium with 105.20 broken eggs. After 10 min, the ammonium solution was the one that showed a significant difference of 50.50 hatched eggs, followed by the enzymatic 26.80 and hypochlorite 25.00 treatments. After 20 min, the enzymatic solution treatment showed a significant difference with the other solutions showing an increase of 98.80 broken eggs. In the 30 and 40-min times, only the enzymatic treatment showed a significant difference of 334.10 and 381.70 of broken eggs respectively.

    Conclusion: The enzymatic solution has the greatest ovicidal effect against the eggs of T. canis to present a greater number of broken eggs in a given time between 20 and 40 minutes.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 181 | views: 340 | pages: 321-331

    Background: We aimed to detect and characterize vector-borne parasites of Babesia and Theileria in dog and ticks by PCR assay. Canine babesiosis is a significant tick-borne disease caused by different Babesia species.  As the infection has not been reported in Shahriar region Tehran, Iran, molecular techniques allowed us to identify tick-borne parasites in asymptomatic dogs.

    Methods: The number of 40 dog peripheral blood samples and 27 skin attached ticks were analyzed by molecular PCR assay. The specific primers were used for detecting Babesia canis, B. gibsoni and T. annulata.

    Results: B. c. vogeli was detected in 10 dog blood samples (25%). Additionally, T. annulata infection was identified in 13 dog blood samples (32.5%) and 18 isolated tick DNAs (66.7%). The results of PCR were confirmed by 18S rRNA and Tams1 gene sequence analyzing and have been registered in GenBank under following accession numbers for B. c. vogeli (MH793502) and T. annulata (MK105284).

    Conclusion: The verification of T. annulata infection in free-ranging dogs and ticks shows dogs might be considered as important natural carriers/reservoirs for T. annulata in enzootic region for bovine theileriosis. The obtained data may be useful for veterinary practitioners and dog owners to aware of Babesia and Theileria infection in dog and tick to establish the effective preventive measures.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 243 | pages: 332-340

    Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging uncontrollable and neglected infectious disease worldwide including Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of apoptosis- related miRNA and its target gene in macrophages.

    Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from January 2016 to November 2018. Applying literature reviews, bioinformatics software, and microarray expression analysis, we selected miRNA-24-3p interfering in apoptosis pathway. The expression profile of this miRNA and target gene were investigated in Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER)-infected primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages (IBRC-C10072) compared with non-infected macrophages (control group) using quantitative Real-time PCR.

    Results: Results of bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-24-3p as anti-apoptotic miRNA inhibits pro-apoptotic genes (Caspases 3 and 7). Microarray expression data presented in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) revealed a significant difference in the expression level of selected miRNA and its target gene between two groups. QRT-PCR results showed that the expression of miR-24-3p was upregulated in L. major infectioned macrophages that approved the results of bioinformatics and microarray analysis.

    Conclusion: Parasite can alter miRNAs expression pattern in the host cells to establish infection and its survival. Alteration in miRNAs levels likely plays an important role in regulating macrophage functions following L. major infection. These results could highlight current understanding and new insights concerning the gene expression in macrophages during leishmaniasis and will help to development of novel strategies for control and treatment of CL.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 340 | pages: 341-348

    Background: Strongyloidiasis is a public health concern in northern regions of Iran, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Auto-infection cycle can be resulted in high parasitic load, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Because of low sensitivity of stool culture and stool-based microscopy techniques, detection of antibodies in patient’s sera can be an alternative diagnostic technique for detection of the nematode. In the present study, as the first step of the development of an ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against the nematode, IgG4 immunoreactive protein (NIE) was expressed in Escherichia coli expression system, purified and verified.

    Methods: The NIE gene sequence was retrieved from the GenBank. This sequence was codon-optimized for the expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The sequence was inserted into the expression vector pET-30b (+). The recombinant vector was then transferred into competent E. coli BL21 (DE3). Transformed colonies were selected and verified by colony PCR. NIE gene expression was induced with IPTG induction. The protein production was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and verified using Western blotting.

    Results: The codon-optimized NIE gene had required parameters for expression in E. coli. NIE protein was proved and verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. 

    Conclusion: NIE recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli expression system in appropriate amounts. The recombinant protein can be used for developing ELISA kit in diagnosis of S. stercoralis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 122 | views: 233 | pages: 349-356

    Background: In this study, the effect of total lysate antigen (TLA) of Toxoplasma gondii on spleen lymphocyte prolifration, secretion of IL5, INF-γ, and mice survival time was evaluated using agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 11, as an adjuvant.

    Results: Mice immunized with TLA + adjuvant showed higher immunization index than the two other groups and combination of TLR11 (as an adjuvant) and TLA significantly elevated the effect of TLA by increasing the production of INF-γ and IL-5 and by the shift of the immune system to Th1. In addition, the combination of TLA and TLR11 adjuvant increased the proliferation of lymphocytes and survival time in mice against T. gondii.

    Conclusion: Profilin (as an adjuvant) in combination with TLA could be a potent vaccine candidate that evokes a powerful specific immune response and significantly improves the efficacy of TLA vaccine by increasing the induction of INF-γ production and by shifting the immune responses to Th1 profile through increasing the INF-γ/IL-5 ratio. It causes significant protection against T. gondii after i.p. injection.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 139 | views: 237 | pages: 357-363

    Background: The Totiviridae family includes a number of double-stranded RNA viruses that can infect Trichomonas vaginalis. Some T. vaginalis isolates are infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study, different strains of double-stranded RNA virus in Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis were evaluated for the first time in Iran. 

    Methods: Vaginal swabs were collected from 1550 participants who were referred to hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from June to November 2018.    T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in Diamond's modified medium. After the extraction of nucleic acids using a DNA/RNA extraction kit, RT-PCR was performed and PCR products were purified and sequenced.

    Results: In general 9 (0.6%) isolates were confirmed as T. vaginalis among 1550 collected vaginal samples. Among 9 isolates of T. vaginalis, three of them were infected with TVV1. One isolate has multiple infections with T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) as coinfection. The nucleotide BLAST indicated that the T. vaginalis virus 1(TVV1) isolates were most closely related to TVV1-OC5, TVV1-UR1-1.The T. vaginalis virus 2 (TVV2) sequence had also a similarity with TVV2-UR1-1, TVV2-UR1 and TVV2-OC3. The sequence of T. vaginalis virus 3(TVV3) had similarity with TVV3-OC5, TVV3-UR1-1 and TVV3-UR1.

    Conclusion: Three dsRNA viruses T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) were detected using RT-PCR in T. vaginalis Iranian isolates. The coinfection of TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3 in one isolate of T.vaginalis was observed for the first time in Iran.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 144 | views: 302 | pages: 364-373

    Background: A supramolecular complex of praziquantel (PZQ) with disodium salt of glycyrrhizic acid (Na2GA) was obtained by mechanochemical technology to increase solubility, absorption rate and hence bioavailability of the drug and reduction its therapeutic doses. The aim of our study was evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of supramolecular complex of PZQ.

    Methods: Different samples of PZQ with Na2GA were obtained by mechanochemical processing and examined for some physico-chemical properties. The anthelmintic activity of the most perspective samples was studied on the laboratory model of Hymenolepis nana infection of mice and Moniezia expansa infection of sheep by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestines (the controlled test).

    Results: A high efficacy (> 98%) of supramolecular complex of PZQ with Na2GA (1/10) was shown at doses of 3; 2 and 1 mg/kg of body weight at single oral administration against H. nana in mice and M. expansa in sheep. While the basic PZQ had 27.19% and 36.64% efficacy respectively at the dose of 1 mg/kg. The PZQ:Na2GA 1/10 physical mixture (without mechanochemical processing) revealed no anthelmintic efficacy.

    Conclusion: Joint mechanochemical treatment the PZQ substance and Na2GA led to increased solubility, reduction of particle sizes, amorphization of substance, incorporating it with micelles of glycyrrhizic acid and high anthelmintic efficacy in reduced dose. The supramolecular complex of praziquantel was found to be a perspective anthelminthic with enhanced pharmacological activity that needs further research.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 156 | views: 253 | pages: 374-382

    Background: We aimed to detect Toxoplasma gondii in ovine aborted fetuses and evaluate its genetic variations in the southwest of Iran.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 aborted ovine fetuses collected from the different region of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran, in lambing season during 2017 and 2018. DNA was extracted from the brain samples of all of the aborted fetuses and PCR amplified, targeting a 529 bp repetitive element gene of T. gondii. Moreover, to find out the heterogeneity of the positive samples, PCR-DNA amplification of the two main genetic markers, B1 and GRA6, of T. gondii were performed. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed, using the BLAST program and MEGA-X software.

    Results: The 529 bp gene of T. gondii was detected in 2 out of 100 (2%) of the ovine aborted samples. The sequences analysis of GRA6 and B1 genes revealed that both isolates from the aborted fetuses of sheep belonged to type I of T. gondii. Intra-divergence was more seen in GRA6 gene whereas less divergence was observed in B1 gene.

    Conclusion: Congenital infection with Type I of T. gondii during the neonatal period is associated with abortion in ovine. Evaluation of more aborted samples from broader geographical areas is needed to elucidate the molecular epidemiology and also the genotypes of T. gondii associated with abortion.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 254 | pages: 383-392

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) donovani complex. Drug-resistant strains have been developed as a consequence of the current chemotherapeutic interventions, which has increased the need for advanced preventive and therapeutic strategies. A2-CPA-CPB-CTE-recombinant strain of L. tarentolae, which is non-pathogenic to humans, was shown protective in live vaccine as well as its DNA vaccine counterpart in both murine and canine models.

    Methods: We evaluated the effectiveness of these DNA and live vaccination harboring A2-CPA-CPB-CTE in protecting hamsters against L. infantum infection using prime-boost regimens, namely DNA/DNA and Live/Live (n=9 hamsters per group). Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) were utilized as an adjuvant for DNA priming and electroporation for boosting DNA. At different time points post-challenge, parasite burden and body weight as well as humoral immune responses were measured.

    Results: Both immunization strategies partially protect hamsters against L. infantum challenge. This protective immunity is associated with remarkable decrease in parasite load in liver and spleen of vaccinated hamsters eight weeks after challenge compared to control group.

    Conclusion: Both test groups (DNA/DNA and Live/Live) elicited high levels of IgG2 and total IgG as humoral immune responses and lower level of parasite propagation in both liver and spleen.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 228 | pages: 393-402

    Background: Free-living amoeba (FLA) are widely distributed in different environmental sources. The most genera of the amoeba are Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba. The most common consequences of the infections in immune-deficient and immunocompetent persons are amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp., isolated from the main agricultural water canal in Qazvin.

    Methods: Totally, 120 water specimens were collected and later the specimens were cultured and cloned to identify positive samples. PCR amplification and sequencing were carried out to identify the isolated species as well as the genotypes of amoeba.

    Results: According to morphological surveys, 41.7% (50/120) of water specimens were positive for FLA. Molecular analysis revealed that 68.6% and 31.4% of Acanthamoeba specimens were identified as T3 and T4 genotypes, respectively. Also, two species of Naegleria named as N. lovaniensis (57.1%) and Naegleria spp. (42.8%) were identified. The results of pathogenicity assays demonstrated that 38.5% of T3 and 61.5% of T4 genotypes of Acanthamoeba were highly pathogenic parasites.

    Conclusion: The water flowing in the agricultural canal of the area is contaminated with potential pathogenic FLA, therefore, it is recommended that more attention to be paid towards proper treatment of water sources to prevent possible risk of the disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 132 | views: 213 | pages: 403-410

    Background: Among the human parasitic diseases, malaria is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. To prevent the high mortality and tracking malaria elimination efforts, a prompt and sensitive diagnosis is essential.  This study aimed to compare High-Resolution Melting (HRM) and microscopic methods to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    Methods: Eighty-one blood samples were collected from patients with clinical symptoms who were suspect to malaria in Chabahar district, southeastern Iran and also, from those who were referred to Malaria National Laboratory in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Microscopic examination and HRM method were used to the diagnosis of Plasmodium parasites simultaneously.

    Results: Microscopic results revealed 45 positive cases (12 P. falciparum and 33 P. vivax) out of 81 collected samples while according to HRM analysis results 11 and 33 samples were identified as P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. HRM analysis also revealed 1 mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. malariae.

    Conclusion: HRM analysis provides a promising mean for simultaneous detection and discrimination of the Plasmodium spp. especially in mixed infection cases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 263 | pages: 411-417

    Background: Application of chemotherapy to treatment of parasitic disease of man and animals can be problematic due to different adverse effects. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nanoparticles as new therapeutic tools against these diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles on Giardia deudenalis cysts in vitro, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole.

    Methods: The cysts were taken from the stools of patients in Urmia, Iran, during 2017-2018. The cysts were taken from stool and were concentrated and isolated on 0.85 M-sucrose. Then, selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared at concentrations of 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml. The effect of nanoparticle’s various concentrations at 10, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min were evaluated and compared to control groups. Obtained data was recorded and statistically analyzed.

    Results: Copper oxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.6 mg/ml and selenium nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml had the same effect as of metronidazole in killing of Giardia cysts. The cytotoxic effects of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles, compared with metronidazole, on Giardia cysts, showed an increase of fatality rate due to extend exposure time and nanoparticle’s concentration (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: Selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles are as efficient as metronidazole, for killing Giardia cysts in vitro.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 174 | views: 322 | pages: 418-424

    Background: Fascioliasis is a neglected zoonotic disease, caused by Fasciola species in human and livestock. We aimed to detect the seroprevalence of human fascioliasis Gorgan City, Golestan Province, northern Iran using ELISA method in 2017.

    Methods: Overall, 612 serum samples were analyzed. A relevant questionnaire for demographic data was obtained for all cases. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola in the sera. The data analysis was performed employing SPSS program version 21.

    Results: Eleven cases (1.79%) were seropositive for fascioliasis. The seroprevalence of fascioliasis was 1.9% and 1.1% among males and females, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between the fascioliasis and analyzed variables such as sex, age, residence, job, education, etc.

    Conclusion: This study was conducted only on the people referring to the Reference Laboratory of Gorgan. It cannot be distributed to the whole city. Thus, due to importance of the disease, finding the seroprevalence of fascioliasis in a comprehensive survey in Golestan Province should be accounted in further studies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 143 | views: 237 | pages: 425-434

    Background: This epidemiological study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in BuMusa Island, Iran, in one year from 2015 to 2016.

    Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted in coordination with the health authorities of BuMusa on 732 intestinal samples and 1207 blood samples randomly collected from the island residents. Cutaneous lesions of 1207 people were clinically examined and those suspected of parasitic infections were enrolled. Also, 165 intestinal samples from domestic animals, 35 samples from water tanks, and 330 soil samples were taken to the laboratory to be investigated in terms of parasitic infections.

    Results: The obtained results showed 26.4% and 45.5% intestinal parasitic infections in humans and animals, respectively. The most prevalent infections in humans were Blastocystis hominis (8.6%), followed by Giardia lamblia (8.2%), and Entamoeba coli (6.8%); and the least prevalent infection was Enterobius vermicularis (<0.2%). Malaria agents and Leishmania were not observed in blood samples. Investigation of animal feces showed that the highest parasitic infection was Eimeria arloingi (16.4%), while the lowest prevalence belonged to Monizia expansa (0.6%). Hymenolepis nana eggs and Cyclops were detected in one sub-source of water tanks. Rhabditis larva, a free-living nematode, was observed in a soil sample.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of parasitic infections in BuMusa Island was relatively low probably due to its hot and dry climate.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 330 | pages: 435-439

    Background: Toxocariasis is a disease caused by Toxocara nematodes and occurs from consuming their eggs. The main hosts of these worms are dogs and cats. The disease in humans becomes a visceral larva migrans (VLM). This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 6–14 years.

    Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from Jun 1 2016 to Dec 1 2017 in Sanandaj, west of Iran. A total of 182 serum samples were collected from children age 6 to14 yr referred to medical diagnostic laboratories. Demographic data (age, sex, and parents' literacy status), clinical signs (cough, headache, fever, abdominal pain), and the history of contact with dogs and cats was collected by a questionnaire. The presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibody was detected by T. canis IgG ELISA (IBL, Germany) kit.

    Results: Of 182 subjects, 97 (53.3%) were male and 85 (46.7%) female. The average age was 9.2 years. Antibodies against T. canis were positive in three cases (1.65%) of all the studied subjects.

    Conclusions: The results showed a low prevalence of toxocariasis in children studied.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 233 | pages: 440-445

    Background: Soil–transmitted helminth infections constitute a public health problem in the rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions, including Thailand. We aimed to determine the prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth infections and underlying risk factors among the schoolchildren living in the rural areas of southern Thailand.

    Methods: A cross–sectional survey was conducted between Sep and Nov 2018 in the district of Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A total of 192 children, aged 6–12 yr were enrolled. Each child provided a single stool sample that was subjected to a suite of microscopic diagnoses for soil–transmitted helminth. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors of the infections. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate associations.

    Results: The overall prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth infections was 3.13%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2.08%; hookworm 1.04% and Trichuris trichiura 0.52%. Children who cutting fingernails short can prevent soil–transmitted helminth infections highly up to 90% (crude OR = 0.1; 95% confidence interval = 0 – 0.8; P = 0.020).

    Conclusion: The finding of the study shows a sharp decrease in the prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth among schoolchildren in the southern Thailand in the past two decades with prevalence dropping below 5% for soil–transmitted helminth. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis remained stable over time. These results suggest that the culture method should be used to access strongyloidiasis situation in the older age group who greater contact with soil for agriculturists.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 210 | pages: 446-451

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, which can infect all nucleated cells in a variety of vertebrate animals, including human, causing toxoplasmosis. Although a number of studies have reported on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in China, however, information about T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Anhui, China is not available.

    Methods: The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to detect antibodies in sera samples from 468 pet dogs at Anhui Province in China from November 2013 to April 2017.

    Results: 18.6% animals were T. gondii seropositive, indicating a slightly higher prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Anhui, China in comparison with other provinces in China.

    Conclusion: Our present study provided epidemiological data on T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Anhui, China for the effective prevention and control of the parasite prevalence in this area.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 132 | views: 279 | pages: 452-456

    Background: More than a hundred species of mammals, birds, and reptiles are infected by nematodes of the Trichinella genus worldwide. Although, Trichinella spp. are widely distributed in neighboring countries including Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iran, no study was conducted in Armenia since 1980’s.

    Methods: In 2017-2018, five muscle samples belonging to Armenian lynx, otter, wild boar, fox and wolf were tested for Trichinella spp. and recovered larvae were identified by multiplex PCR technique.

    Results: Twenty-six larvae/gram and one larva/gram were found in lynx and fox samples respectively. They were identified as T. britovi.

    Conclusion: So far only two species were identified in Armenia, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, and this is the first time that T. britovi is reported in Armenia.

Case Report(s)