Molecular Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep Aborted Fetuses Reveals Predominance of Type I Infection in Southwest of Iran
Background: We aimed to detect Toxoplasma gondii in ovine aborted fetuses and evaluate its genetic variations in the southwest of Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 aborted ovine fetuses collected from the different region of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran, in lambing season during 2017 and 2018. DNA was extracted from the brain samples of all of the aborted fetuses and PCR amplified, targeting a 529 bp repetitive element gene of T. gondii. Moreover, to find out the heterogeneity of the positive samples, PCR-DNA amplification of the two main genetic markers, B1 and GRA6, of T. gondii were performed. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed, using the BLAST program and MEGA-X software.
Results: The 529 bp gene of T. gondii was detected in 2 out of 100 (2%) of the ovine aborted samples. The sequences analysis of GRA6 and B1 genes revealed that both isolates from the aborted fetuses of sheep belonged to type I of T. gondii. Intra-divergence was more seen in GRA6 gene whereas less divergence was observed in B1 gene.
Conclusion: Congenital infection with Type I of T. gondii during the neonatal period is associated with abortion in ovine. Evaluation of more aborted samples from broader geographical areas is needed to elucidate the molecular epidemiology and also the genotypes of T. gondii associated with abortion.
2. Sarkari B, Abdolahi Khabisi S. Severe congenital toxoplasmosis: a case report and strain characterization. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2015;2015:851085.
3. Asgari Q, Fekri M, Monabati A, et al. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in human spontaneous aborted fetuses in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Iran J Public Health. 2013;42(6):620-5.
4. Asgari Q, Sarnevesht J, Kalantari M, et al. Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, Southern Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43(2):389-92.
5. Oliveira FCd, Oliveira PAd, Cunha Filho NAd, et al. The incidence and productive significance of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Brazil. Ciência Rural. 2016;46(9): 1618-1621.
6. Bennett R, IJpelaar J. Updated estimates of the costs associated with thirty-four endemic livestock diseases in Great Britain: a note. J Agric Econ. 2005;56(1):135-44.
7. Pereira-Bueno J, Quintanilla-Gozalo A, Pérez-Pérez V, et al. Evaluation of ovine abortion associated with Toxoplasma gondii in Spain by different diagnostic techniques. Vet Parasitol, 2004;121(1-2):33-43.
8. Masala G, Porcu R, Daga C, et al. Detection of pathogens in ovine and caprine abortion samples from Sardinia, Italy, by PCR. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19(1):96-8.
9. Arefkhah N, Pourabbas B, Asgari Q, et al. Molecular genotyping and serological evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii in mothers and their spontaneous aborted fetuses in Southwest of Iran. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019;66:101342.
10. Steuber S, Niu A, Bauer C, et al. Der Nachweis von Toxoplasma gondii in Abortgeweben vom Schaf mittels der Polymerase-Kettenreaktion. Dtsch Tierärztl Wschr. 1995;102:91-3.
11. Dubey J, Jones J. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38(11):1257-78.
12. Sharif M, Amouei A, Sarvi S, et al. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from ruminants: A systematic review. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;258:38-49.
13. Sharif M, Sarvi S, Shokri A, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasitol Res. 2015;114(1):1-16.
14. Rahimi MT, Daryani A, Sarvi S, et al. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2015;82(1):823.
15. Edvinsson B, Lappalainen M, Evengard B. Real-time PCR targeting a 529-bp repeat element for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12(2):131-6.
16. Costa JM, Alanio A, Moukoury S, et al. Direct genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from amniotic fluids based on B1 gene polymorphism using minisequencing analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:552.
17. Zia-Ali N, Fazaeli A, Khoramizadeh M, et al. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains from different hosts in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2007;101(1):111-5.
18. Fazaeli A, Carter PE, Darde ML, et al. Molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains by GRA6 gene sequence analysis. Int J Parasitol. 2000;30(5):637-42.
19. Rezanezhad H, Sayadi F, Shadmand E, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among HIV patients in Jahrom, Southern Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2017;55(1):99-103.
20. Heidari H, Gharekhani J, Tavoosidana G. Role of toxoplasmosis in abortion of ewes in western Iran: a serological study. Sci Parasitol. 2013;14(2):99-103.
21. Hamidinejat H, Goraninejad S, Ghorbanpoor M, et al. Role of Toxoplasma gondii in abortion of ewes in Ahvaz (South-West Iran). Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2008;52:369-71.
22. Habibi G, Imani A, Gholami M, et al. Detection and identification of Toxoplasma gondii type one infection in sheep aborted fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7(3):64-72.
23. Danehchin L, Razmi G, Naghibi A. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in aborted fetuses in sheep in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Iranian J Vet Med. 2017;11(2):147-54.
24. Danehchin L, Razmi G, Naghibi A. Isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains in ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2016;54(1):15-20.
25. Rassouli M, Razmi G, Bassami M, et al. Study on ovine abortion associated with Toxoplasma gondii in affected herds of Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran based on PCR detection of fetal brains and maternal serology. Parasitology. 2011;138(6):691-7.
26. Masala G, Porcu R, Madau L, et al. Survey of ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis by IFAT and PCR assays in Sardinia, Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117(1-2):15-21.
27. Abu-Dalbouh MA-a, Ababneh MM, Giadinis ND, et al. Ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) in aborted animals in Jordanian goat and sheep flocks. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44(1):49-54.
28. de Moraes ÉPBX, da Costa MM, Dantas AFM, et al. Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis in ovine aborted fetuses and stillborns in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183(1-2):152-5.
29. Moreno B, Collantes-Fernández E, Villa A, et al. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187(1-2):312-8.
30. Battisti E, Zanet S, Trisciuoglio A, et al. Circulating genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in Northwestern Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2018;253:43-7.
31. Chessa G, Chisu V, Porcu R, et al. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Type II in sheep abortion in Sardinia, Italy. Parasite. 2014;21:6.
32. Jungersen G, Jensen L, Rask M, et al. Non-lethal infection parameters in mice separate sheep type II Toxoplasma gondii isolates by virulence. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;25(3):187-95.
33. Gutierrez J, O’Donovan J, Proctor A, et al. Application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and enzootic abortion of ewes. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24(5):846-54.
|Issue||Vol 15 No 3 (2020)|
|Toxoplasma gondii Ovine aborted fetuses Sequence analysis Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|