The First Detection of Co-Infection of Double-Stranded RNA Virus 1, 2 and 3 in Iranian Isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis
Background: The Totiviridae family includes a number of double-stranded RNA viruses that can infect Trichomonas vaginalis. Some T. vaginalis isolates are infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study, different strains of double-stranded RNA virus in Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis were evaluated for the first time in Iran.
Methods: Vaginal swabs were collected from 1550 participants who were referred to hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from June to November 2018. T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in Diamond's modified medium. After the extraction of nucleic acids using a DNA/RNA extraction kit, RT-PCR was performed and PCR products were purified and sequenced.
Results: In general 9 (0.6%) isolates were confirmed as T. vaginalis among 1550 collected vaginal samples. Among 9 isolates of T. vaginalis, three of them were infected with TVV1. One isolate has multiple infections with T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) as coinfection. The nucleotide BLAST indicated that the T. vaginalis virus 1(TVV1) isolates were most closely related to TVV1-OC5, TVV1-UR1-1.The T. vaginalis virus 2 (TVV2) sequence had also a similarity with TVV2-UR1-1, TVV2-UR1 and TVV2-OC3. The sequence of T. vaginalis virus 3(TVV3) had similarity with TVV3-OC5, TVV3-UR1-1 and TVV3-UR1.
Conclusion: Three dsRNA viruses T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) were detected using RT-PCR in T. vaginalis Iranian isolates. The coinfection of TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3 in one isolate of T.vaginalis was observed for the first time in Iran.
2. Rezaeian M, Vatanshenassan M, Rezaie S, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Using Parasitological Methods in Tehran. Iran J Parasitol. 2009;4(4):43-7.
3. Cotch MF, Joseph G Pastorek I, Nugent RP, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. Sex Transm Dis. 1997;24(6):353-60.
4. Fichorova RN. Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;83(1-2):185-9.
5. Schwebke JR, Burgess D. Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17(4):794-803.
6. Sobel JD, Nagappan V, Nyirjesy P. Metronidazole-resistant vaginal trichomonia-sis—an emerging problem. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(4):292-3.
7. Weber B, Mapeka T, Maahlo M, et al. Double stranded RNA virus in South African Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56(7):542-543.
8. Benchimol M, Monteiro SP, Chang T-H, et al. Virus in Trichomonas—an ultrastructural study. Parasitol Int . 2002;51(3):293-8.
9. Goodman RP, Ghabrial SA, Fichorova RN, et al. Trichomonasvirus: a new genus of protozoan viruses in the family Totiviridae. Arch Virol. 2011;156(1):171-9.
10. Buchmeier M, Welsh R, Dutko F, et al. The virology and immunobiology of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Adv Immunol. 1980;30: 275-331.
11. Wang A, Wang C. Viruses of parasitic protozoa. Parasitol Today. 1991;7(4):76-80.
12. Malik S-B, Pightling AW, Stefaniak LM, et al. An expanded inventory of conserved meiotic genes provides evidence for sex in Trichomonas vaginalis. PLoS One. 2008;3(8):e2879.
13. Khoshnan A, Alderete J. Trichomonas vaginalis with a double-stranded RNA virus has upregulated levels of phenotypically variable immunogen mRNA. J Virol. 1994;68(6):4035-8.
14. Provenzano D, Khoshnan A, Alderete J. Involvement of dsRNA virus in the protein composition and growth kinetics of host Trichomonas vaginalis. Arch Virol. 1997;142(5):939-52.
15. Orujzadeh F, Tabatabaie F, Khanaliha K, et al. Prevalence and Genotyping of Trichomonas vaginalis Infected to dsRNA Virus by PCR–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Iran J Parasitol. 2019;14(2):250-7.
16. Khanaliha K, Masoumi-Asl H, Bokharaei-Salim F, et al. Double-stranded RNA viral infection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TVV1) in Iranian isolates. Microb Pathog. 2017; 109: 56-60.
17. El-Gayar EK, Mokhtar AB, Hassan WA. Molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA virus in Trichomonas vaginalis Egyptian isolates and its association with pathogenicity. Parasitol Res. 2016;115(10):4027-36.
18. Wang A, Wang CC, Alderete JF. Trichomonas vaginalis phenotypic variation occurs only among trichomonads infected with the double-stranded RNA virus. J Exp Med. 1987;166(1):142-50.
19. Benchimol M, Chang T-H, Alderete JF. Trichomonas vaginalis: observation of coexistence of multiple viruses in the same isolate. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;215(2):197-201.
20. Bessarab IN, Liu H-W, Ip C-F, et al. The complete cDNA sequence of a type II Trichomonas vaginalis virus. Virology. 2000;267(2):350-9.
21. Rivera WL, Justo CAC, Relucio-San MACV, et al. Detection and molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA viruses in Philippine Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2017;50(5):669-76.
22. Hampl V, Vaňáčová Š, Kulda J, et al. Concordance between genetic relatedness and phenotypic similarities of Trichomonas vaginalis strains. BMC Evol Biol. 2001;1(1):11.
23. Fraga J, Rojas L, Sariego I, et al. Double-stranded RNA viral infection in Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005;9(6):521-4.
24. Snipes LJ, Gamard PM, Narcisi EM, et al. Molecular epidemiology of metronidazole resistance in a population of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(8):3004-9.
25. Kim JW, Chung P-R, Hwang M-K, et al. Double-stranded RNA virus in Korean isolate IH-2 of Trichomonas vaginalis. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45(2):87-94.
26. Heidary S, Bandehpour M, Valadkhani Z, et al. Double-Stranded RNA Viral Infection in Tehran Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates. Iran J Parasitol. 2013;8(1):60.
27. Fraga J, Rojas L, Sariego I, et al. Genetic characterization of three Cuban Trichomonas vaginalis virus. Phylogeny of Totiviridae family. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12(1):113-20.
28. Wendel KA, Rompalo AM, Erbelding EJ, et al. Double-stranded RNA viral infection of Trichomonas vaginalis infecting patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. J Infect Dis. 2002;186(4):558-61.
29. Bessarab IN, Nakajima R, Liu H-W, et al. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. Arch Virol. 2011;156(2):285-94.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.