Original Article

In Vitro Assessment Antiparasitic Effect of Selenium and Copper Nanoparticles on Giardia deodenalis Cyst


Background: Application of chemotherapy to treatment of parasitic disease of man and animals can be problematic due to different adverse effects. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nanoparticles as new therapeutic tools against these diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles on Giardia deudenalis cysts in vitro, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole.

Methods: The cysts were taken from the stools of patients in Urmia, Iran, during 2017-2018. The cysts were taken from stool and were concentrated and isolated on 0.85 M-sucrose. Then, selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared at concentrations of 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml. The effect of nanoparticle’s various concentrations at 10, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min were evaluated and compared to control groups. Obtained data was recorded and statistically analyzed.

Results: Copper oxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.6 mg/ml and selenium nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml had the same effect as of metronidazole in killing of Giardia cysts. The cytotoxic effects of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles, compared with metronidazole, on Giardia cysts, showed an increase of fatality rate due to extend exposure time and nanoparticle’s concentration (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles are as efficient as metronidazole, for killing Giardia cysts in vitro.

1. Markell EK, John DT. Medical parasitology. 14th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2006; 63-70.
2. Gadelha AP, Vidal F, Castro TM, et al. Susceptibil-ity of Giardia lamblia to Hovenia dulcis extracts. Parasi-tol Res. 2005; 97(5):399–407.
3. Harris JC, Plummer S, Lioyd D. Antigiardial drugs. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001; 57(5-6):614-9.
4. Calzada F, Alanis AD. Additional antiprotozoal flavonol glycosides of the aerial parts of Helianthe-mum glomeratum. Phytother Res. 2007; 21(1):78–80.
5. Harris JC, Plummer S, Turner MP, et al. The mi-cro-aerophilic flagellate Giardia intestinalis: Allium sa-tivum (garlic) is an effective antigiardial. Microbiolo-gy. 2000; 146:3119–27.
6. Elmi T, Gholami S, Fakhar M, et al. A Review on the use of nanoparticles in the treatment of parasitic infections. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 23 (102):126-33.
7. Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012; 379 (9822):1256–1268.
8. Shakibaie M, Khorramizadeh MR, Faramarzi MA, et al. Biosynthesis and recovery of selenium nano-particles and the effects on matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2010; 56(1):7–15.
9. Tran PA, Webster TJ. Selenium nanoparticles in-hibit Staphylococcus aureus growth. Int J Nanomedi-cine. 2011; 6:1553–58.
10. Huang B, Zhang J, Hou J, et al. Free radical scav-enging efficiency of Nano-Se in vitro. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003; 35 (7):805–813.
11. Wang H, Wei W, Zhang SY, et al. Melatonin-selenium nanoparticles inhibit oxidative stress and protect against hepatic injury induced by Bacillus Calmette- Guérin/lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Pine-al Res. 2005; 39(2):156–163.
12. Wang H, Zhang J, Yu H. Elemental selenium at nano size possesses lower toxicity without com-promising the fundamental effect on selenoen-zymes: comparison with selenomethionine in mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007; 42(10):1524–33.
13. Zhang J, Wang H, Bao Y, et al. Nano red elemental selenium has no size effect in the induction of se-leno-enzymes in both cultured cells and mice. Life Sci. 2004; 75(2):237–44.
14. Zhang J, Wang H, Yan X, et al. Comparison of short-term toxicity between Nano-Se and selenite in mice. Life Sci. 2005;76 (10):1099–1109.
15. Kuppusamy UR, Wan YP, Chai JW, et al. A com-parison between selenium dioxide and selenium methionine induced cytotoxicity in estrogen recep-tor negative and positive breast cancer cell lines. J Food Technol. 2005; 3(3):280-283.
16. Frietsch M, Zudock F, Goschnick J, et al. CuO catalytic membrane as selectivity trimmer for metal oxide gas sensors. Sensors and Actuators B Chem-ical. 2000; 65(1): 379–81.
17. Sukhorukov YP, Loshkareva NN, Samokhvalov AA, et al. Magnetic phase transitions in optical spec-trum of magnetic semiconductor CuO. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials.1998;183(3): 356–58.
18. Shende S, Ingle AP, Gade A, et al. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn.; (Idi-limbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 6: 865-73.
19. Khalili B, Taghipur S, Deris F. Effect of Valeriana officinalis hydroalcoholic extracton Giardia lamblia cysts. J Herbmed Pharmacol.2015; 4:125-128.
20. Bavand Z, Bavand Z, Gholami SH, et al. In vitro evaluation of the effect of gold nanoparticles on Giardia lamblia cyst. Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ). 2014;16 (79).
21. Fallahi S, Rostami , Delfan B, et al. Effect of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronida-zole in vitro. J Parasit Dis. 2016; 40(4):1204-09.
22. Wang H, Wick RL, Xing B. Toxicity of nanopartic-ulate and bulk ZnO, Al2O3 and TiO2 to the nema-tode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Pollut. 2009; 157(4):1171-7.
23. Ahamed M, Akhtar JM, Raja M, et al. ZnO nano-rod induced apoptosis in human alveolar adenocar-cinoma cells via p53, survivin and bax/bcl-2 path-ways: role of oxidative stress. Nanomedicine. 2011; 7(6): 904-13.
24. Nair S, Sasidharan A, Rani VD, et al. Role of size scale of ZnO nanoparticles and microparticles on toxicity toward bacteria and osteoblast cancer cells. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009; 20:235-41.
25. Mahmoudvand H, Shakibaie M, Tavakoli R, et al. In vitro study of leishmanicidal activity of biogenic se-lenium nanoparticles against Iranian isolate of sensi-tive and glucantime-resistant Leishmania tropica. Iran J Parasitol. 2014; 9(4): 452-460.
26. Saad AHA, Soliman MI, Azzam AM, et al. Antiparasitic activity of silver and copper oxide nanoparticles against Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum cysts. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2015; 45(3)593-602.
27. Soflaei S, Dalimi A, Abdoli A, et al. Anti-leishmanial activities of selenium nanoparticles and selenium dioxide on Leishmania infantum. Comp Clin Path. 2014; 15-20.
28. Schrand AM, Rahman MF, Hussain SM, et al. Metalbased nanoparticles and their toxicity assessment. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol. 2010; 2(5):554-68.
29. Beveridge TJ, Murray RGE. Sites of metal deposition in the cell wall of bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1980; 141(2):876-887.
30. Ren G, Hu D, Cheng EW, et al. Characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009; 33(6):587-90.
31. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med.1995; 18(2):321-36.
32. Kim J, Cho H, Ryu S, et al. Effects of metal ions on the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase VHR: highly potent and reversible oxidative inactivation by Cu2+ ion. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000; 382(1):72-80.
33. Yang J, Huang K, Qin S, et al. Antibacterial action of selenium-enriched probiotics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Dig Dis Sci. 2009; 54(2): 246-54.
34. Mézes M, Balogh K. Prooxidant mechanisms of selenium toxicity e a review. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 2009; 53.
35. Beheshti N, Soflaei S, Shakibaie M, et al. Efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles against Leishma-nia major: In vitro and in vivo studies. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2013; 27(3): 203-7.
36. Puryan K, Karadayi K, Topcu O, et al. Chlorhexidine gluconate: an ideal scolicidal agent in the treatment of intraperitoneal hydatidosis? Wld J Surg. 2005; 29(2):227-230.
IssueVol 15 No 3 (2020) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v15i3.4206
Cyst Giardia deodenalis In vitro Selenium nanoparticles Copper oxide nanoparti-cles

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
MALEKIFARD F, TAVASSOLI M, VAZIRI K. In Vitro Assessment Antiparasitic Effect of Selenium and Copper Nanoparticles on Giardia deodenalis Cyst. Iran J Parasitol. 2020;15(3):411-417.