Comparison of in Vitro Efficacy of Six Disinfectants on the Hatching of Larval Eggs of Toxocara canis

  • Camilo ROMERO Research Department, DERMAVET Veterinary Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Rafael HEREDIA Mail Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, UAEM Amecameca University Center, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, State of Mexico, Mexico
  • Manuel BOLIO Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mérida, Yucatán, México
  • Laura MIRANDA Research Department, DERMAVET Veterinary Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Laura REYES Research Department, DERMAVET Veterinary Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico
  • Mauricio ARREDONDO Department of Life Sciences, Guanajuato University, Irapuato-Salamanca Campus, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
  • Ariadna FLORES Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, UAEM Amecameca University Center, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, State of Mexico, Mexico
Keywords:
Toxocara, Disinfectants effect, Eggs, In vitro

Abstract

Background: The environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs increases the risk of dissemination and transmission of the parasite in dogs and paratenic hosts such as humans. We aimed to evaluate different disinfectants to compare their effect on T. canis eggs.

Methods: For its realization, 850 embryonated eggs were obtained, which were suspended in a solution of 5% formaldehyde and distilled water in Eppendorf tubes. In the tubes containing the 850 embryonated eggs, researchers was added 0.5 mL of each solution (enzymatic solution, sodium hypochlorite, iodopovidone, quaternary of ammonium, benzalkonium chloride, and super oxidation solution). After mixing, an aliquot was taken, observed under the microscope, and the number of broken eggs counted at different times to find the most effective ovicidal moment.

Results: The enzymatic disinfectant present a significant difference (P = 0.05) with 276.06 broken eggs followed by ammonium with 105.20 broken eggs. After 10 min, the ammonium solution was the one that showed a significant difference of 50.50 hatched eggs, followed by the enzymatic 26.80 and hypochlorite 25.00 treatments. After 20 min, the enzymatic solution treatment showed a significant difference with the other solutions showing an increase of 98.80 broken eggs. In the 30 and 40-min times, only the enzymatic treatment showed a significant difference of 334.10 and 381.70 of broken eggs respectively.

Conclusion: The enzymatic solution has the greatest ovicidal effect against the eggs of T. canis to present a greater number of broken eggs in a given time between 20 and 40 minutes.

References

1. Poulsen CS, S Skov A, Yoshida A, et al. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati—is it possible? Parasite Immunol 2015; 37:204–207.
2. Romero NC, Yañez AS, Mendosa MG, et al. Con-taminación y viabilidad de huevos de Toxocara spp. en suelo y heces colectadas en parques públicos, calles y perros en Toluca, México. Revista Científi-ca. 2013; 23:475–479.
3. Instituto nacional de estadística y geografía (INEGI). https://sc.inegi.org.mx/repositorioNormateca/OL_06Jun13.pdf (accessed September 4, 2018).
4. Lee RM, Moore LB, Bottazzi ME, et al. Toxocaria-sis in North America: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8(8): e3116.
5. Lee AC, Schantz PM, Kazacos KR, et al. Epidemi-ologic and zoonotic aspects of ascarid infections in dogs and cats. Trends Parasitol. 2010; 26(4):155–161.
6. Walsh MG. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population. Int J Parasitol. 2011; 41(11): 243–247.
7. MG Walsh, Haseeb MA. Reduced cognitive func-tion in children with toxocariasis in a nationally rep-resentative sample of the United States. Int J Parasi-tol. 2012; 42(13-14):1159–1163.
8. Strube C, Heuer L, Janecek E. Toxocara spp. infec-tions in paratenic hosts. Vet Parasitol. 2013; 193(4):375–389.
9. Nagwa MS. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivi-ty of Toxocara canis eggs. J Parasit Dis. 2017; 41(4): 1020–1027.
10. Public health agency of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health.html
11. Marín FI, Castaño JC. Establecimiento de una línea celular primaria apartir de huevos con embrión de Toxocara canis. Infectio. 2011; 15(3):184–190.
12. Overgaauw PA, van Knapen F. Veterinary and public health aspects of Toxocara spp. Vet Parasitol. 2013; 193(4):398–403.
13. Ponce MM, Peralta AG, Martínez GM. Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic parasites: prevalence in adult dogs from the southern part of Mexico City. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 131(1-2):1–4.
14. Ponce-Macotela M, Rodríguez CA, Peralta AG, et al. A simplified method for hatching and isolating Toxocara canis larvae to facilitate excretory-secretory antigen collection in vitro. Vet Parasitol. 2011; 175(3-4):382–385.
15. Verocai GG, Tavares PV, Fde A, et al. Effects of disinfectants on Toxocara canis embryogenesis and larval establishment in mice tissues. Zoonoses Pub-lic Health.2010; 57(7-8):e213–e216.
16. Zibaei M, Sadjjadi SM, Jahadi-Hosseini SH, et al. A method for accelerating the maturation of Toxocara cati eggs. Iran J Parasitol. 2007; 2(1):39-42.
17. von Dohlen AR, Houk-Miles AE, Zajac AM, et al. Flotation of Toxocara canis eggs in commercial bleach and effects of bleach treatment times on larval de-velopment in these eggs. J Parasitol. 2017; 103(2):183–186.
Published
2020-09-12
How to Cite
1.
ROMERO C, HEREDIA R, BOLIO M, MIRANDA L, REYES L, ARREDONDO M, FLORES A. Comparison of in Vitro Efficacy of Six Disinfectants on the Hatching of Larval Eggs of Toxocara canis. Iran J Parasitol. 15(3):315-320.
Section
Original Article(s)