Vol 16 No 4 (2021)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 248 | views: 365 | pages: 527-537

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a neuroinvasive protozoa pathogen that could manipulate its intermediate host's behavior. However, the possible link between T. gondii infection and the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been proposed, we tested the hypothesis that in chronic toxoplasmosis neuroinflammation, and molecular mediators potentiate behavioral-cognitive impairments in BALB/c mice with PD.

    Methods: To establish chronic toxoplasmosis by Tehran strain, cysts of T. gondii were injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice in Kerman, Iran in 2019. To induce the PD model, mice (BALB/c) were treated with Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The behavioral experiments such as anxiety and motor coordination were performed using the Open field and Rotarod tests. Additionally, we investigated the contribution of Toxoplasma-induced neuroinflammation, and behavioral-cognitive impairments in the PD mice model.

    Results: Chronic toxoplasmosis caused PD-like symptoms and induced various behavioral changes in infected BALB/c mice. In T. gondii infected+MPTP treated group, T. gondii infection could potentiate PD in infected mice receiving MPTP and caused remarkable dysfunction in motor coordination and change in anxiety and depression-like behaviors similar or more severe than PD group.

    Conclusion: Chronic T. gondii infection exacerbates pathological progression of PD in BALB/c mice brain by promoting neuroinflammation, and behavioral changes establishing.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 160 | views: 446 | pages: 538-547

    Background: Human toxocariasis is prevalent in many countries but this disease has been rarely reported from Vietnam. We aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory findings and assess possible association between these findings in patients with toxocariasis in Vietnam.

    Methods: A prospectively study, between October 2017 and June 2019 was performed involving 120 toxocariasis patients at Medic Medical Center, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The diagnosis of toxocariasis was established based on clinical, laboratory (eosinophilia, raised IgE concentration) and serological (positive Toxocara IgG ELISA test) evaluation as well as the exclusion of other helminthic coinfection.  

    Results: The most frequently reported manifestation was of skin (n = 93, 77.5%), including urticarial (n= 69, 57.5%) followed by neurologic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary signs/symptoms. Hepatic involvement occurred in 8.3% of the patients. No significant relationship between clinical findings and laboratory parameters was found except the higher values of eosinophil count and IgE concentration among patients with liver involvement. There was a significant relationship between eosinophil count and IgE concentration (r=0.389, P<0.001). Serological findings did not show a correlation with clinical and other laboratory findings.

    Conclusion: Our data revealed a wide range of clinical symptoms/signs and a high incidence of skin manifestations in patients with toxocariasis. Eosinophil count and IgE concentration are valuable markers for the evaluation of the disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 139 | views: 426 | pages: 548-554

    Background: Giardia duodenalis is an important opportunistic zoonotic intestinal protozoon, which could parasitize yaks. However, a few studies have been conducted on the seasonal infection of G. duodenalis in yaks in China.

    Methods: Overall, 1,027 fecal samples were collected from yaks of two age groups in seven cities of Qinghai Province, China at four seasons between May 2016 and Sep 2017. The prevalence and assemblages were analyzed by nested PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

    Results: The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 2.04% (21/1027) based on triose phosphate isomease (tpi) locus. No significant differences in prevalence of the organism in yaks were found among different sampling areas. Additionally, same result was also presented in different seasons. However, there was statistically significant difference between young yaks within 6 months (8.33%, 4/48) and adult yaks over 6 months (1.73%, 17/979). The assemblage A recognized as a zoonotic assemblage (n=3) was found in yaks (>6 months) from Xining, while assemblage E (n=18) was detected from yaks in six cities. There were 5, 2 and 3 G. duodenalis subtypes detected positive at the tpi, the β-giardin (bg), and the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci, with 2, 2 and 3 novel subtypes, respectively. Three samples were successfully sequenced at all three loci, forming 1 assemblages A multilocus genotype (MLG) and 2 assemblages E MLGs, not reported.

    Conclusion: This study indicated a zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis in yaks from Qinghai Province and provides basic information about the epidemiology of G. duodenalis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 120 | views: 431 | pages: 555-559

    Background: To perform molecular epidemiologic studies based on large cohorts, material such as RDTs or filter papers are useful for biological sample collection and extraction of RNA or DNA of good quality. Thus, we aimed to assess the quality of DNA extracted from malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) stored at various temperatures for the analysis of Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity.

    Methods: Febrile patients benefitted from free malaria diagnosis using microscopy in a malaria sentinel site, at the Regional Hospital Estuaire-Melen, in Gabon, in 2015. P. falciparum isolates were collected onto one filter paper and 2 similar RDTs devices (Acon®) per patient. Nucleic acids were extracted with QiAmp Qiagen kit from paper and RDTs and the quality of the DNA was analyzed by msp1 gene amplification.

    Results: Msp1gene amplification was achieved in nucleic acids extracted from all filter papers and RDTs devices (n = 45, 100%). K1 alleles were detected in 93.3% (n = 42/45) of the samples and Mad20 alleles in 73.3% (n = 33/45). The number and the intensity of K1 and/or Mad20 fragments were comparable according to the sample collection material and the storage conditions (room temperature vs -20°C) of the samples. The size of the fragments indicating allelic diversity was comparable in 80% (n=36) of the samples.

    Conclusion: These data show that RDTs are a valuable source of DNA for malaria parasite genetic polymorphism analysis. Storage conditions of the devices did not influence the quality of DNA extracted from RDTs device, although some alleles may be missed.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 176 | views: 557 | pages: 560-566

    Background: Acanthamoebae are a causative agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in immunocompetent individuals. Since access to propamidine isethionate (Brolene®) as a first-line treatment has been limited in recent years, in the current study, we examined the effects of pentamidine isethionate against trophozoite and cyst forms of Acanthamoeba.

    Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, during 2019-2020. Pentamidine isethionate at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 µM were tested against trophozoites and cyst stages of T4 genotype, at 24- and 48-hour incubation period, and the viability was determined by trypan blue staining. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of the drug was examined in Vero cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

    Results: The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of pentamidine isethionate on trophozoite after 24 and 48h were 97.4 µM and 60.99 µM. These results on cyst after 24 and 48h were 470 µM and 175.5 µM, respectively. In MTT assay, the drug showed an inhibitory effect on Vero cell growth with IC50 values of 115.4 µM and 87.42 µM after 24h and 48h, respectively.

    Conclusion: Pentamidine isethionate exhibited an inhibitory effect on trophozoite and cyst. Given that the trophozoicidal activity of the drug is in the safe dose, it could be suggested as an alternative in patients with AK; however, further investigation is needed in an animal model to confirm the data.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 123 | views: 404 | pages: 567-575

    Background: We aimed to determine the cellular recruitment (leukocyte rolling and adhesion) by which the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) amazonensis, and L. (Leishmania) major species in the mesenteric microcirculation of BALB/c mice.

    Methods: Five experimental groups were considered: group 1 (L. braziliensis); group 2 (L. amazonensis); group 3 (L. major); group 4 (control group with PBS); group 5 (negative control group), analyzed 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after parasite inoculation.

    Results: Infections by the different Leishmania species caused an increase in the number of rolling leukocytes: L. braziliensis a peak at 6 h; L. amazonensis and L. major a peak at 3 h. The Leishmania infections induced leukocyte adhesion: L. major and L. amazonensis showed an increase after 3 and 6 h, respectively.

    Conclusion: The kinetics of cellular recruitment in Leishmania infections, leading to infection susceptibility or resistance, indicates that distinct mechanisms regulate the initial response to Leishmania infection and determine its course.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 130 | views: 491 | pages: 576-586

    Background: A high correlation is observed between specific clonal lineages and host types in toxoplasmosis. The main objectives of this study were comparing polymorphism and evolutionary analysis of the B1 and ROP8 genes, as well as the evaluation of phylogenic and Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from different hosts and regions.

    Methods: Overall 96 brain/ diaphragm tissue samples of livestock and poultry from three provinces of Iran (cows: 9 from Yazd, 9 from Qom; sheep: 19 from Yazd, 7 from Qom; goats: 7 from Yazd, 4 from Qom; one camel from Yazd and 37 chickens, 2 roosters and one duck from Golestan) were tested during 2018-19. A nested PCR and PCR-PCR methods were developed with the B1 and ROP8 genes. Evaluation of genetic proximity, genetic diversity and evolutionary analysis were done using MEGA-X and DnaSP5 software. Thirty samples of both genes were sequenced (18 B1 and 12 ROP8 genes), and submitted to the GenBank (MN275903-MN275932).

    Results: Tajima's D index analyses showed that both genes were in the negative direction of evolution. The B1 gene was more sensitive than the ROP8 gene. The ROP8 gene showed better and more acceptable results in terms of the relationship between the host and the genotyping of the samples.

    Conclusion: The B1 gene was only an attractive target for rapid detection of T. gondii parasites, whereas the ROP8 gene due to a high level of polymorphism was able to isolate the three clonal lineages (type I, II and III), inter-types and even atypical strains from different isolates of T. gondii.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 149 | views: 355 | pages: 587-592

    Background: Human toxocariasis is caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati, the nematodes in the intestine of dogs and cats, respectively. Since the association between asthma and toxocariasis is controversial, the aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection among asthmatic children in comparison with healthy children.

    Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 92 asthmatic and 91 healthy children aged 1-16 years old in Shiraz City, Southern Iran in 2019-2020. The serum samples were tested for IgG anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA method using the T. canis larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results: The seroprevalence of toxocariasis in asthmatic patients was higher than the healthy children with no significant difference in Toxocara seropositivity between two groups (9.8% vs 8.8%, P = 0.817). The association between Toxocara infection and variables such as gender and age were not statistically significant.

    Conclusion: There was no significant association between toxocariasis and childhood asthma. Further study on different regions such as urban and rural areas with a large sample size and using questionnaire for considering risk factors of asthma and toxocariasis is recommended.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 155 | views: 481 | pages: 593-600

    Background: Cystic Echinococcosis is considered a cosmopolitan cyclozoonotic parasitic infection. This study aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of human hydatidosis using ELISA test and find the role of mutable factors such as age, sex, occupation, residency in the broadcast of the parasites in rural Ardabil Province, North-West of Iran.

    Methods: The study population was 950 asymptomatic individuals selected randomly from urban and rural populations of Ardabil province, North-West of Iran by randomized cluster sampling in 2019-2020. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus spp. were analyzed by ELISA test. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and Multivariable logistic regression model.

    Results: Overall, 42 (4.4%) of the participants had anti E. granulosus antibodies in this region. High titer antibodies were most prevalent in people age group of >70 yr old, rural areas, females and people having history of contact with dog that showed significant difference. There was no significant association between the presence of Echinococcus antibodies and sex, occupation, having history of eating unwashed vegetable.

    Conclusion: This is the first description of the seroprevalence of E. granulosus infection in the population in Ardabil Province, North-West of Iran. Obtained rate of hydatidosis approves the importance of diagnosing human cystic echinococcosis in these regions and it is expected that the authorities be careful to screen the disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 147 | views: 399 | pages: 601-609

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, causes toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was molecular detection of T. gondii in breast and goat milk samples by the molecular method in the central Iran.

    Methods: Totally, 300 human' and 200 goats' milk samples were collected randomly from different regions of central Iran in 2018. DNA extraction was performed by the salting-out method. Molecular detection of the parasite was done by nested-PCR using the specific primer pairs. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 23 using descriptive and Chi-square tests.

    Results: Out of 300 human milk samples, 1 sample (0.3%) was infected with T. gondii. Out of 200 samples of goat milk, 11 samples (5.5%) showed infection with T. gondii. The frequency of infection in goat's milk samples was 4.36% in the south and west, 1.9% in northern regions, and 2% in eastern regions of the province. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between toxoplasmosis and different geographical regions in the province.

    Conclusion: Because of the popularity of the goat milk and the transfection probability with the milk to humans, it is recommended to boil milk prior to use. Furthermore, case contamination of T. gondii in the human milk sample showed one of the important paths for infection transmission, which requires further studies.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 103 | views: 294 | pages: 610-620

    Background: The adult stage is an important period in the life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, as it is at this stage that male and female worms produce thousands of fertilized eggs daily.

    Methods: To explore the transcriptional details of adult male and female A. cantonensis, three groups of male and female adult worms were collected, and their transcriptome profiles were analyzed using an Illumina next-generation sequencing platform. A total of 283,910,174 clean reads were obtained, and 137,626 unigenes and 237,059 transcripts were then generated. Unigenes were successfully annotated by querying the Gene Ontology (GO), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (NR), PFAM, STRING, and SWISS-PROT databases. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 genders were identified. The GO and KEGG databases were used for DEG annotation, and a number of DEG annotations were enriched.

    Results: The results obtained from querying DEGs using the GO and KEGG databases revealed that male and female adult worms exhibited differences in metabolism and production. Protein phosphorylation, ion transport, and calcium transport were all significantly enriched according to GO annotation. A number of other pathways were also enriched according to KEGG enrichment annotation, including the pentose phosphate pathway, nitrogen metabolism, oocyte meiosis pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway etc.

    Conclusion: We hypothesized that the nervous system of the worm plays a key role in the physiological regulation of adult A. cantonensis, and based on this, the function of the calcium-signaling pathway should be investigated.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 153 | views: 242 | pages: 621-630

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide-distributed infection that can cause serious diseases, mainly in congenitally infected and immunodeficient individuals. PCR assays play an indispensable role in the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in different biological samples.

    Methods: This study was conducted in the Parasitology Department at Pasteur Institute of Iran (Tehran) during 2016-2018. We designed a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) targeted REP-529, a noncoding repetitive DNA. We cloned the amplicon in a plasmid (pTZREP-529) and used it to generate the standard curve. The Toxoplasma RT-qPCR characteristics, i.e., detection limit, specificity, linear dynamic range, linearity, intra-, and inter-assay precisions, were determined. The detection limit of the assay was one plasmid copy number (PCN) per reaction (about 0.004 T. gondii genome), and the linear dynamic range was equal to 6 logs (1× 101 to 1× 107 PCN per reaction).

    Results: The assay showed no signal when genomic DNA of Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania major, and Trichomonas vaginallis were used. The standard curve was drawn using dilutions of pTZREP-529 plasmid spiked with genomic DNA from a mouse brain, and test characteristics were shown unaffected. Applying the Toxoplasma RT-qPCR, we showed brain cysts were significantly decreased in mice vaccinated with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma formulated in Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL) adjuvant.

    Conclusion: We have developed a quantitative, specific, and highly sensitive PCR for detecting T. gondii in biological samples.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 103 | views: 288 | pages: 631-640

    Background: We examined anti-Toxoplasma effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula Retz (T. chebula) in cell culture and murine model.

    Methods: The study was conducted in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2017. Half maximal effective (concentration (EC50) of T. chebula extract and pyrimethamine was determined in infected Hela cells by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. In the animal model, BALB/c mice were injected with tachyzoites (104) of T. RH strain intraperitoneally. 24h after the injection, the test groups were orally treated with 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of T. chebula extract for 7 days. The survival rate of the mice was determined and blood samples were collected to determine the amount of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant capacity. Then peritoneal fluid of the mice was collected to count the number of tachyzoites and after necropsy, the pathologic changes, including the weight of liver, spleen and kidneys were investigated. The analysis of data was accomplished using SPSS.

    Results: EC50 values were 94.7μg/mL and 290.50μg/mL for T. chebula and pyrimethamine respectively. In the animal model, the extract of T. chebula in concentration of 100 mg/kg showed the same anti-Toxoplasma effect as pyrimethamine. This concentration of the extract decreased number of intraperitoneal tachyzoites and increased the survival rate of the mice. This extract reduced the levels of serum MDA and tissue inflammation and increased serum antioxidant capacity.

    Conclusion: Regarding the positive effect of extract, after more clinical trials in the animal model and standardization of the extract, it can be used as an alternative or complementary therapy for toxoplasmosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 104 | views: 295 | pages: 641-651

    Background: The extract of myrtle plant contains polyphenolic compounds that show antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-parasitic properties. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of aqueous and ethanolic myrtle extract against leishmaniasis caused by L. major in vivo and in vitro conditions.

    Methods: This study was carried out in Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran in 2018. Aqueous and ethanolic extract of myrtle plant at 6.25 to 400 mg/ml concentrations were tested on Leishmania major promastigotes, non-infected macrophages, and macrophages infected with amastigotes in vitro using counting, MTT and flow cytometry techniques. Then, BALB/c mice were treated with ethanolic, aqueous and a mixture of both extracts of myrtle plant. The treatment was carried out for four weeks. Then, the effectiveness of the herbal medicine was assessed by measuring wounds diameters, mice weights and their mortality rate on weekly basis.

    Results: The IC50 values of aqueous and ethanolic extracts for promastigotes were 7.86 and 11.66 μg/mL respectively. The IC50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts for amastigotes were 12.5 and 47.2 μg/mL respectively. Flow cytometry indicates 62.88% and 60.16% apoptosis induced by ethanolic and aqueous extract of myrtle plant respectively. The lowest parasitic load was seen in the group treated with ethanolic extract.

    Conclusion: The lesion sizes for treated groups with extracts were similar to those treated with glucantime. Oral administration instead of injection is another advantage of myrtle plant over glucantime, which makes the herb easy and more practical.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 111 | views: 301 | pages: 652-662

    Background: Visceral Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in the tropics and sub-tropic regions where it is endemic. We aimed in testing the leishmanicidal activity and toxicity of Prosopis juliflora leaf extract in BALB/c mice and in vitro test systems respectively.

    Methods: In the year 2017 until 2019, BALB/c mice of mixed sexes aged between 6 and 8 weeks in groups of 8 were used. Group I treated with 100 mg/kg of P. juliflora extract, Group II -1 mg/kg of Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and Group III treated with normal saline. All mice were anaesthized and sacrificed to obtain blood, spleen samples for antibody measurements, and determination of parasite loads.

    Results: There was significant inhibitory effect (P<0.05) exhibited by P. juliflora leaf extract on promastigote growth during the in vitro test whereby up to 98% parasites were killed at the highest concentrations of 100 µg/Ml of the extract as compared to SSG, which showed less inhibitory effect on promastigotes. P. juliflora exhibited a higher splenic antiamastigote effect after 21 days of administration as compared to SSG. P. juliflora methanolic leaf extract induced a higher total IgG level as compared to the reference drug which could be attributed to higher titer in IgG2a subtype in mice treated with the extract, which was not induced in mice, treated with SSG.

    Conclusion: P. juliflora exhibited higher inhibitory effects against L. donovani promastigotes as well as amastigotes and induced significantly higher IgG antibody levels as compared to SSG (P<0.05). Furthermore, it was safer than SSG on Vero E6 cells.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 112 | views: 587 | pages: 663-671

    Background: The study on lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Igbo-Eze North was conducted to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors to LF among its residents between May and October 2018.

    Methods: A total of 201 residents who have lived in the area for at least one year were recruited. They were stratified according to age, gender and occupation, and were clinically examined firstly by rapid assessment method for any lymphoedema and hydrocele. At recruitment, blood samples were collected from all volunteered participants for LF test. In addition, demographic information and risk factors of the respondents were captured using a structured questionnaire by oral interview.

    Results: The overall prevalence for LF was 84 (41.8%). Furthermore, LF prevalence was significant (P < 0.05) in all the studied communities: 61.5% in Umuogbuagu, 48.1% in Aguibege, 32.7% in Umuagama and 21.7% in Umuopu. The sex-related prevalence of LF was higher among females than males, with slight significant difference (P = 0.046). In relation to age and occupation, higher prevalences (P < 0.0001) were recorded among older (≥ 50 years) subjects (49, 61.2%) and traders (55, 57.9%) respectively. The risk associated with LF implicated lack of knowledge, non-use of mosquito nets, as well as visit and proximity to water bodies as major predispositions (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of LF in this study was high. Higher prevalence was among females, older people and traders. Notable risks to the disease outcome are environmental, attitudinal and occupational with chances of scaled up prevalence and burden overtime.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 107 | views: 291 | pages: 672-677

    Background: Wild foxes play an important role in echinococcosis epidemics. There have been a few studies investigating Echinococcus spp. in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area, China, but none on the prevention and control of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes.

    Methods: From 2016 March through December 2019, two wild fox dens were selected as two test sites based on prior long-term camera screening and observation. Anthelmintic praziquantel tablets were placed near the two dens of wild foxes, and the wild foxes freely consumed the anthelmintic drugs. Morphological methods were used to detect initially the parasite species, and PCR molecular methods were used to identify accurately parasite and host species.

    Results: Parasite eggs of E. multilocularis (2/11, 18.2%) were found in 11 fecal samples. Importantly, the eggs of E. multilocularis (1/21, 4.8%) were found again in the feces of the foxes one year later; moreover, the eggs of E. multilocularis (2/19, 10.5%) still existed in the feces of the foxes two years later.

    Conclusion: Wild foxes were repeatedly infected with E. multilocularis and that deworming for prevention and control is required at least twice per year. Prevention and control methods for echinococcosis in wild foxes were explored, providing a scientific basis for the prevention and control of echinococcosis in wild animals.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 135 | views: 404 | pages: 678-685

    Background: Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of tissues or body cavities of mammals with dipterous larvae. The patients with diabetic foot ulcers are more vulnerable to acquiring infestation; however, the infestation may be neglected and mistreated in some cases. 

    Methods: Data were collected of twelve myiasis cases with diabetic foot ulcers in Nazli-Selim Eren Chronic Wound and Infections Care Unit, Aydin, Turkey between 2017 and 2019. Demographic, clinical characteristics of the patients and clinical examination of the wound were recorded. To morphology-based identification method of the agents, the developmental stages of the maggots were examined.

    Results: The cases aged between 46 and 81 years (10 males, two females). Eight of the larvae collected from wounds had Calliphoridae and four had Sarcophagidae family. The larvae were infested right/left foot sole, thumb, ankle, and mostly left toes. The number of larvae collected from the cases ranged from 2 to 48. Third-stage larvae (L3) were mostly detected. Mixed (L1-L2, L2-L3) larvae were detected in a patient. The infestations were more common in July and August. According to the score of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), ten (83%) cases had moderate and two (17%) cases were mild diabetic foot infections (DFIs).

    Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcers should be evaluated in terms of myiasis. This was the first study in our province indicating that myiasis should not be neglected and different species of flies were responsible for myiasis cases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 112 | views: 293 | pages: 686-691

    Background: The genus Abbreviata (Spirurida: Physalopteridea) currently contains 47 species. Physalopteridae nematodes infect a large number of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. The current study is a report of the first morphological and molecular identification of A. kazakhstanica (Spirurida: Physalopteridea) in Pseudopus apodus in Iran.

    Methods: Eleven road-killed P. apodus, were collected from, Iran during 2016-2018. The nematodes were isolated from stomach. After morphological study, the genomic DNA of the parasites was extracted using CTAB method. The DNA was used for PCR amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1). The PCR products were sequenced, the sequence data were analyzed and multiple alignments were conducted using the Clustal Omega.

    Results: After detailed microscopic examination, the A. kazakhstanica was identified. The cox1 sequences confirmed the species of helminth. The new sequences of A. kazakhstanica were submitted to GenBank under the accession number MK578751-2.

    Conclusion: Regarding the limited data on parasitological status of Iranian reptiles, more specific and comprehensive investigations are needed to identify the parasitic fauna.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 151 | views: 349 | pages: 692-696

    Hydatid cyst (HC) is a parasitic infection transmitted by oral ingestion of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. Isolated kidney involvement is extremely rare. It is even less common in children.  We present a case of isolated renal HC in a 6-year-old boy from Şanlıurfa, southeast Turkey who complained of abdominal pain and distension. Cystectomy was performed with a flank incision using the extraperitoneal approach. No recurrence was detected in the postoperative 6-month follow-up. There are not enough data about the efficacy of medical treatment in renal HC. Therefore, medical treatment should be considered pre- and post-operatively to prevent dissemination, rather than being used as a primary treatment. Kidney-sparing surgery should be the first choice in patients with isolated renal HC. However, nephrectomy is recommended for nonfunctioning kidneys, large cysts thought to be connected with the collecting system, and cysts with suspicious tumor. In societies where HC disease is endemic, renal HC should be considered in children with cysts located in kidney, even if the indirect hemagglutination test is negative.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 136 | views: 358 | pages: 697-702

    Congenital Chagas disease is considered a form of dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi related to human migration from endemic, often rural to previously non-endemic urban areas. This fact increases the Chagas disease establishment risk inside of family members by vertical transmission pathway. Congenital Chagas disease cases in newborns could not identified by the health professional even in endemic regions. Here we present the first family cluster of Chagas disease cases from Chiapas: one of the most important endemic areas in South of Mexico, where vertical T. cruzi transmission incidence rate is ranged between 2% to 22% revealing an important public health problem. Two cases inside a family from Chiapas, México with positive antibodies against T. cruzi detected by ELISA are presented; one of them got the infection through vertical pathway. We think that congenital Chagas disease should not be ignored in a newborn born from an asymptomatic Chagas disease mother, who may transmit the parasite infection randomly.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 166 | views: 389 | pages: 703-710

    Extravasation of doxorubicin, vincristine or vinblastine leads to necrosis, damage of the muscles and nerves, deep ulceration, as well as limb dysfunction. Necrosis and deep ulcers develop within 7 to 28 days. Like necrotomy, Lucilia sericata maggot therapy is recognised as a method enabling effective, safe and quick removal of necrotic tissue. The purpose of the study was to present local treatment of hypodermic necrosis caused by docetaxel extravasation in course of systemic cancer therapy. A woman, 59 years of age, in course of systemic therapy due to advanced cancer of the left breast (T2N1M1 CS IV) with confirmed metastases within the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra and in the liver, receiving a combination treatment with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. During the therapy, a conservative treatment was applied due to extravasation for over three months. Effects in the right forearm included swelling, redness, signs of 4x10cm inflammatory infiltrate, with 1x4cm necrotic crust visible in the central region. Hypodermic necrosis was debrided using L. sericata maggots, and subsequently specialist dressings were applied to promote granulation and healing. In the case discussed here, effectiveness of MDT was rather poor, however the treatment minimised the risk of infection associated with evacuation of necrosis. Attempts to use MDT should be continued to enable more comprehensive understanding of problems related to management of necrosis in wounds developing during cancer therapy.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 220 | pages: 711-714

    Folliculorum mites (Demodex folliculorum, and D. brevis) are part of the common external parasites in humans as the exclusive host of them. The highest focus of these mites is on those parts of the body that have fat glands and fatty products in the skin. This is proven by the dermal – epidermal separation method. In the present study, the presence of Demodex is reported in a urine sample containing hematuria, which has not been observed so far according to the previous investigations. The case was related to a 44-yr-old woman with symptoms of headache, chills, and joint pain referring to the medical diagnostic laboratory of Sanandaj, Kurdistan Province, northwest of Iran. After historiography and collecting the urine sample as middle, the live parasite of Demodex was observed. The presence or migration of mite in the atypical areas of the body (genital, urinary, eye, etc.), which are close to hairy tissues (especially in women), may be one of the causes of allergic reactions and clinical symptoms in people.