Vol 14 No 1 (2019)
Background: Trichomoniasis, due to Trichomonas vaginalis, is one of the most common sexually transmitted parasitic diseases in the world such as Iran. This systematic review aimed to explore the studies evaluating the medicinal herbs with anti- T. vaginalis activity which used in Iran.
Methods: Articles published in 4 Persian and 4 English databases were obtained between 2000 and 2015 including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Barakatkns (formerly IranMedex), Elm net, and SID (Scientific Information Database). Studies out of Iran, studies on animal models and articles on other parasite species than T. vaginalis were excluded from this review.
Results: Twenty-one articles including in vitro experiments, met our eligibility criteria. Thoroughly, 26 types of plants were examined against T. vaginalis. Medicinal herbs such as Artemisia, Zataria multiflora, and Lavandula angustifolia are remarkably effective on T. vaginalis. As such, use of other parts of these plants in different concentrations and timelines is recommended for future in vivo studies.
Conclusion: The present systematic review provides comprehensive and useful information about Iranian medicinal plants with anti-T. vaginalis activity, which would be examined in the future experimental and clinical trials and herbal combination therapy.
Background: This study aimed to the serological and molecular diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections and related risk factors in patients with thalassemia major and healthy controls.
Methods: This case-control study was performed in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, west of Iran from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. Overall, 235 patients with thalassemia major and 235 healthy controls were enrolled. Assessment of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in sera samples was performed using commercial ELISA kits. In order to the molecular investigate of T. gondii in blood samples, a relatively new molecular assay, LAMP technique based on Toxoplasma SAG1 gene was conducted for the first time. The specificity of LAMP outer primers for the T. gondii detection was confirmed by sequencing the purified PCR product.
Results: 51.9% of thalassemia patients and 34.8% of healthy controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, which the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). In terms of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody, 3.4% of thalassemia patients and 2.1% of healthy individuals were positive, which the difference was not statistically significant (P=1). Based on SAG1-LAMP, 9.78% of the thalassemia patients and 5.95% of healthy controls were positive for T. gondii DNA, which the difference was not statistically significant (P≤0.230).
Conclusion: Thalassemia patients, probably due to repeated blood transfusion and consequently, immune deficiency, are at risk of transmitting Toxoplasma infection more than healthy people. Therefore, screening of Toxoplasma infection in blood transfusion centers may be effective in the prevention of toxoplasmosis in these patients.
A Simple and Cost-Effective Freeze-Thaw Based Method for Plasmodium DNA Extraction from Dried Blood Spot
Background: Available DNA isolation methods for Plasmodium involve numerous processing steps, adding to the cost and conferring risk of contamination. Here we devise a simple and cost-effective method for direct extraction of Plasmodium DNA from dried filter paper spot (DBS), appropriate for resource-limited setups.
Methods: The protocol involves simple freezing and thawing of DBS, neither involves any purification step nor any chemical reagent. The method was assessed in terms of DNA quantity, PCR detection sensitivity, time requirement, cost effectiveness, labor intensiveness and degree of shearing. The reliability of this method was confirmed by comparing it with other in use methods for Plasmodium DNA isolation.
Results: Pure DNA was obtained with this method, as exemplified by the absorbance ratio (260nm /280nm) of 1.2. The protocol produced digestible, PCR-grade genomic DNA, also found to be suitable for sequencing. DNA isolated remained stable and retained its integrity after storage for one month at 4 0C.
Conclusion: Our process substantiated as efficient, reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive. Development of this optimized freeze-thaw based DNA extraction method for malaria parasite may provide a valuable tool for molecular analysis in resource-limited setups. This is the first report of DNA extraction from DBS of Plasmodium utilizing freeze-thaw.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fascioliasis and to perform a climatological analysis of different regions of Iran based on the current situation of the parasite and its intermediate host using Geographical Information System (GIS).
Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. Risk map of fascioliasis transmission was prepared based on this data and using forecasting indices. Further, the number of fascioliasis cases from 31 provinces reported to the Iran Veterinary Organization were collected and prevalence maps of livestock fascioliasis were drawn.
Results: The main risk hotspots were found in Northern provinces like Golestan, Mazandaran and Gilan as well as some Southern provinces such as Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari and Fars, which have ideal conditions for completion of the parasite life cycle. Moreover, Gilan Province with 10.83% had the highest rate of fascioliasis infection in slaughtered animal.
Conclusion: Iran is one of the most important foci of fascioliasis globally. Several provinces of Iran have appropriate conditions for evolution of parasite life cycle and presence of its intermediate host. These regions require special attention and serious determination in order to control fascioliasis in human and animals.
Background: Human hydatidosis is endemic in northeastern Iran. The present study aimed to investigate molecular diversity of Echinococcus granulosus isolates collected from human surgically.
Methods: Sixty human hydatid cysts (58 lung cysts and 2 liver cysts) were collected through surgery from Ghaem and Emam Reza hospitals in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during 2015-2016. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1).
Results: Overall, 55 out of 60 Echinococcus granulosus cysts (91.6%) were determined as the G1 strain, 4 cases (6.6%) were determined as the G6 strain and 1 sample was not identified.
Conclusion: Although sheep strain (G1) is dominated in human patients in Great Khorasan, the prevention of camel-dog cycle should pay attention in this region.
Background: Understanding the significance of hemozoin (Hz) in the process through which Plasmodium is released from the heme group in the food vacuole during hemoglobin degradation, will allow the development of more effective drugs against malaria. Therefore, the development of methodologies to obtain Hz synthetically will facilitate an in vitro evaluation of new anti-malarial drugs.
Methods: We present a methodology with good results to obtain Hz from fecal material of blood-sucking insects Meccus longipennis. The preparation of biological cultures of the parasite (Plasmodium) transmitter of the disease is not necessary.
Results: The hemozoin molecule and its dimer were obtained using the method described and it was possible to validate a comparison with the positive and negative controls using different analytical techniques.
Conclusion: The proposed method allows obtaining hemozoin and its dimer demonstrating equivalence with positive controls that demonstrate that the present procedure may be an alternative for the evaluation of antimalarial drugs.
Evaluation of Immune Response against Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice Immunized with Cationic DOTAP/DOPE/CHOL Liposomes Containing Soluble Leishmania major Antigens
Background: Whole killed Leishmania vaccine reached phase III clinical trials but failed to display significant efficacy in human mainly due to limited Th1 inducer adjuvant. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) bearing an inherent adjuvanticity and 1, 2-dioleoyl-L-α-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) is well known to intensify the efficacy of positively charged liposomes.
Methods: Soluble Leishmania major antigens (SLA) encapsulated in cationic liposomes using lipid film method in 2016). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in a 2-wk interval, with Lip (DOTAP)-SLA+, Lip (DOTAP/DOPE)-SLA+, Lip (DOTAP/DOPE/CHO)-SLA+, Lip (DOTAP/DOPE/CHO), Lip (DOPE/CHO), SLA or HEPES buffer. At week 2 after the last booster injection, immunized mice have challenged SC in the footpad with L. major parasites. To investigate the rate of protection and the type of immune response generated in mice, lesions development was assessed, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels with the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 isotype were studied to describe the type of generated immune response.
Results: Mice immunized with all liposomal form of SLA showed smaller footpad swelling and lower parasite burden in the spleen and footpad compared to the group of mice received buffer. However, these formulations did not show protection against leishmaniosis because of a generated mixed Th1/Th2 response in mice characterized by high production of IFN-γ and IL4 and a high titer of IgG1 and IgG2a antibody.
Conclusion: Immunization with Lip (DOTAP/DOPE/CHO)-SLA+ was not an appropriate strategy to protect mice against leishmaniosis.
Background: Gene manipulation strategies including gene knockout and editing are becoming more sophisticated in terms of mechanism of action, efficacy and ease of use. In classical molecular methods of gene knockout, homologous arms are designed for induction of crossing over event in double strand DNA. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 system has been emerged as a precise and powerful tool for gene targeting. In this effort, we aimed to generate a CRISPR/Cas9-based vector specific for targeting genes in Leishmania parasites.
Methods: U6 and DHFR promoters and neomycin-resistance gene were amplified from genome of L. major (MHRO/IR/75/ER) and pEGFP-N1, respectively. U6 promoter was cloned in pX330 vector which is named as pX330-U6. DHFR promoter and neo resistance gene sequence fragments were fused using a combination of SOE (Splicing by overlap extension)-PCR and T/A cloning techniques. To generate pX-leish, fused fragments su-bcloned into the pX330-U6. Two sgRNAs were designed to target the gp63 gene and cloned in pX-leish.
Results: The pX-leish vector was designed for simultaneous expression of cas9 and G418 resistance proteins along with a self-cleaving 2A peptide for efficient separation of the two proteins. In this study pX-leish was designed with 3 features: 1) Compatible promoters with Leishmania parasites. 2) Insertion of antibiotic selection marker 3) Designing an all-in-one vector containing all components required for CRISPR/Cas9 system.
Conclusion: This modified system would be valuable in genome manipulation studies in Leishmania for vaccine research in future.
Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis in Children under 14 Years Referring to Laboratories of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Southeast of Iran
Background: The aim of the present survey was to assess thr seroepidemiologic and parasitological aspects of Toxocara canis infection in children under 14 yr old.
Methods: Overall, 963 sera were collected from children in the Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeast of Iran during the period from Sep 2015 to Jun 2016. IgG antibody against T. canis in the subjects’ sera was evaluated using the commercial ELISA kit.
Results: Anti-Toxocara IgG were detected in the serum of 17 (1.7%) of the participants. In the examined children, the highest presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 2.1% (9/418) in 6-10-yr olds, which was higher than other age groups (P<0.05). Anti-Toxocara antibodies were significantly higher in males (2.4% or 12/492) than in females (1.1% or 5/471) (P<0.03). Highest serological prevalence of T. canis occurred in tribes (5.5% or 4/69), followed by rural areas (0.9% or 7/757), while in the urban area it was 0.1% (6/163) (P<0.01). A significant association was seen between the serological prevalence of T. canis and laboratory findings such as eosinophilia (P=0.001) and red blood cell count (P=0.02).
Conclusion: Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection is high among children living in the poor regions of southeast Iran.
Histopathological and Molecular Evaluation of the Experimentally Infected Goats by the Larval Forms of Taenia multiceps
Background: Introduction of Taenia multiceps and T. gaigeri as two separate species have been recognized mainly on morphological grounds. This experimental study was conducted to test whether cerebral and non-cerebral forms of Coenurus cerebralis belong to one origin or they are originated from two different tape worms.
Methods: Two groups of dogs were infected with the cerebral and muscular sources of the coenuri cysts. About two months later the eggs were collected from the fecal samples to be used to experimentally infect other healthy goats. Histopathological and molecular evaluation was conducted in two groups of goats that were challenged with T. multiceps eggs obtained from the infected dogs by brain and muscular sources of coenuri cysts in School of Veterinary Medicine of Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran in 2015. All aberrant sites of predilection of the metacestode in goats were muscles, heart, diaphragm and lungs. The brain and spinal cord were carefully dissected and examined but the cysts were not found in these locations. In addition, the molecular genetic markers of mitochondrial DNA (CO1 and ND1) were applied to resolve the questionable relationship between T. multiceps and T. gaigeri.
Results: The larval stages of T. multiceps in brain and in other aberrant sites, which showed similar morphological criteria, were monophyletic species.
Conclusion: Therefore, T. gaigeri must be considered taxonomically invalid.
Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Wild Rodents in Sichuan Province, Southwestern China
Background: Wild rodents are the intermediate hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wild rodents is of importance to understand the transmission of this parasite. This study aimed to genetically characterize T. gondii isolates from wild rodents in Sichuan province, southwestern China in 2013.
Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 g wild rodents’ brain samples. Semi-nested PCR and multilocous PCR-RFLP technology were performed to examine genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates as described previously.
Results: Overall, 181 brain tissues of different wild rodents, including Eothenomys miletus (n=88), Crocidura attenuate (n=9), Rattus rattus sladeni (n=46), Mus musculus Linnaeus (n=6) and R. niviventer (n=32) were tested for T. gondii DNA, respectively. Six of them were positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by semi-nested PCR amplification, 4 showed complete genotyping results for all 11 polymorphic loci (SAG1, SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP, determined to represent a potential new genotype (http://toxodb.org/toxo/).
Conclusion: These results documented genetic characterization of T. gondii in wild rodents from Sichuan province, and enriched the genetic diversity of T. gondii in China.
Transient Down-Regulation of Nucleoside Transporter 3 Gene Expression as a Drug Target in Leishmania major Using Antisense RNA Technology
Background: This study was aimed to silencing the Nucleoside transporter 3 (NT3) permease nucleobases involved in the salvage pathway of Leishmania in order to disrupt purine nucleotide uptake in the parasite and consequently, destruction of the parasite.
Methods: Overall, 502 bp fragment of the NT3 gene sequence was designed to produce an antisense transcript upon entry of the vector into the parasite. The NT3 construct was transfected into L. major promastigotes and NT3 gene expression was studied in vivo and in vitro conditions.
Results: Relative expression NT3 gene in transgenic Leishmania was decreased in tenth day. The percentages and the number of amastigotes infected macrophages with transgenic L. major were less than infected macrophages with wild-type strain. Our results in two groups of BALB/c female mice (wild-type strain and mutant, n=4 each group) were showed that size and number of ulcers in BALB/c mice infected with transgenic Leishmania promastigotes were less than the BALB/c mice infected with wild-type parasites.
Conclusion: The results indicate the use of antisense RNA reduces of NT3 gene expression in L. major. More studies are required to obtain a new approach for treating Leishmania infection.
Infection of the Jackal (Canis aureus) by Haplorchis taichui (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Southwestern Iran: A Clue for Potential Human Infection
Background: We detected eight trematodes in the small intestine of a road-killed jackal (Canis aureus) from Hamidiyeh District near the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province in 2010.
Methods: Three worms were stained with carmine acid, mounted in Canada balsam on glass slides and examined under a light microscope at 1000X magnification. PCR and sequencing of a partial ITS2 sequence were used to approve the diagnosis.
Results: The flukes measured ≈1 mm in length with an elongated ovoid shape resembling the members of heterophyid, and only one testis, characteristics of the genus Haplorchis. Sequencing of a 481-bp fragment of the ITS2 locus from the worms revealed 97%-98% identity with the similar sequences of the H. taichui flukes previously identified in the fish, cat, and humans from Thailand, China, and Vietnam.
Conclusion: Further studies with the application of reliable molecular tools to diagnose trematode infections in wildlife and humans can bring more insight into the epidemiology of fish-borne flukes including H. taichui in this area.
Evaluation of the Protoscolicidal Effects of Albendazole and Albendazole Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
Background: Protoscolex plays an important role in the development of hydatid cyst. Albendazole is one of the most effectual protoscolicidal agents for averting the reappearance of this disease, nonetheless, its low solubility and its low intestinal absorption necessitates the presence of a drug carrier to enhance its efficacy. In this study, the effect of albendazole and its nano-form on protoscolices in cultured media and in vivo was evaluated.
Methods: Microemulsion method was used to prepare the Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing albendazole. Infected livers were collected from the Slaughterhouse of Ahvaz, Khuzestan in 2017. The protoscolices were stored in RPMI 1640 for one week, and their survival under the influence of albendazole and nano-albendazole on days 3 and 7 at concentrations of 250 and 500µg / ml was investigated. The live protoscolices exposed on day 3 at a concentration of 250 μg/ml were injected to mice for evaluation of pathogenicity. Three months later, after autopsy of the mice, the pathogenicity was evaluated.
Results: Protoscolicidal efficacy was highest in both concentrations on day 7 for albendazole and on day 5 for nano-albendazole. Following the autopsy of the mice, cyst growth was reported in all mice, and only two mice from the albandazole loaded SLNs group did not have any cyst.
Conclusion: Albendazole loaded SLNs showed a higher protoscolicidal property than the free form of this drug; therefore, the use of nano-formulation of this drug is recommended to prevent the onset of this disease.
Intestinal Protozoa in Domestic Cats (Carnivora: Felidae, Felis catus) in Northwestern Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study with Prevalent of Microsporidian and Coccidian Parasites
Background: In this study, some microsporidial and coccidian parasites were isolated from 103 domestic cats in the Meshkin Shahr area, northwestern Iran during the Jun 2014 to Jun 2015, and their genera were identified using parasitological methods with emphasis on their zoonotic importance.
Methods: One hundred and three fecal samples of domestic cats were collected and preserved in formalin (10%) and conserved in phosphate buffer saline solution, finally examined by microscopy after formalin-ether concentration and specific staining. Preservation in dichromate potassium (2.5%) was performed for all coccidian positive samples and then sporulated coccidian oocysts were investigated.
Results: The detected parasites were Isospora spp. 6/103(5.8%). Microsporidian spores were identified in 46/103 (44.6%) of all samples post-stained by the aniline blue staining method.
Conclusion: Microsporidial infections were more prevalent in domestic cats. Further studies are needed in the identification of microsporidial spores isolated from infected cats.
Efficacy of Artemisinin Base Combination Therapy and Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum from Uncomplicated Malaria Falciparum Patient in District of Pesawaran, Province of Lampung, Indonesia
Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium sp., that still prevalence in some part of Indonesia. District of Pesawaran is one of malaria endemic area in the Province of Lampung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ACT treatment in the District of Pesawaran Province of Lampung, Indonesia from Dec 2012 to Jul 2013 and the genetic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum also studied.
Methods: This study was observational analytic study of falciparum malaria patients treated with ACT and primaquine (DHP-PQ and AAQ-PQ) at Hanura Primary Health Centre (Puskesmas). DNA isolation was done with QIAmp DNA Mini Kit. Amplification of PfMDR1, MSP1, and MSP2 genes was done with appropriate forward and reverse primer and procedures optimized first. PCR Product of PfMDR1 gene was prepared for sequencing. Data analysis was done with MEGA 6 software.
Results: The results of this research are DHP-PQ effectiveness was still wellness among falciparum malaria patients in District of Pesawaran, Province of Lampung, Indonesia. There is Single-nucleotide mutation of N86Y of PfMDR1 gene. The dominant alleles found are MAD20 and 3D7 alleles with Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) are low.
Conclusion: Therapy of DHP-PQ as an antimalarial falciparum in Pesawaran District, Lampung, Indonesia is still good. The genetic variation found was the SNP on the N86Y PfMDR1 gene, with dominant allele MAD20 and 3D7.
Background: The larval stage of the tapeworm (cestode) Echinococcus granulosus is the etiological agent of hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis, which is the zoonotic parasitic disease causing morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. Due to a lack of accurate data on the human isolates of E. granulosus in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, the current study aimed to survey the population genetic pattern of cystic echinococcosis isolated from humans by sequencing the mitochondrial genes of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1).
Methods: Overall, 47 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPT) blocks were collected from patients' files in various pathology departments of Mazandaran Province in Iran from 2003 to 2015. PCR was performed to amplify a 398bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial nad1. PCR products were sequenced by Bioneer Corporation (South Korea), and the resulting data were analyzed via relevant software to determine the genotypes.
Results: The nad1 gene was successfully amplified on 10 from all of the E. granulosus isolates. Overall, 66.6% and 33.3% of the isolates in the studied area displayed the G1 and G2-G3 genotypes, respectively.
Conclusion: This study may provide the foundation for further studies in revealing the regional transmission patterns and also in designing adequate control procedures.
Western Blot Analysis of Leishmania infantum Antigens in Sera of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in the northwest and south of Iran. Untreated cases of VL could cause death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of western blotting to detect a specific immunodominant proteins pattern for Leishmania infantum infection using human sera infected with VL.
Methods: We studied a panel of 122 cryopreserved human serum samples from the leishmaniasis Research Laboratory, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from 2010 to 2017.
Serum samples were collected from visceral (Group I, n: 43) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) (Group II, n: 8) patients, healthy individuals from endemic (Group III, n: 13) and non-endemic (Group IV, n: 16) areas for VL, and patients with other infectious diseases (Group V, n: 42). Total antigens were prepared from the Iranian strain of L. infantum promastigote form.
Results: In western blotting method, 34 protein bands of 14 to 163 kDa were recognized using the sera of VL patients. The polypeptide fractions with the highest frequency including 29, 51, and 62 kDa fractions were detected using 81.4%, 79%, and 81.4% of the sera, respectively. These bands were not detected using the sera of the negative control. Moreover, 19-23, 27, 31-35, 143-163, and 109 kDa fractions were detected specifically using the sera of the patients with VL.
Conclusion: This technique could be a primary step for further exploration of VL immunodominant antigens for cloning (or any technique) further investigations for future planning.
Background: Microsporidia as one of the most important pathogens in veterinary and agricultural settings, have emerged in immunocompromised patients in Iran. To date, different Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes have been identified in humans and animals, supporting the possibility of zoonotic zoonosis transmission potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of E. bieneusi genotypes among overpopulated stray dogs in vicinity of Tehran, the capital city of Iran.
Methods: Totally, 75 stool and 75 urine samples were obtained from 75 stray dogs during the time period from Mar 2015 to Oct 2015. DNA extraction was performed on all the samples and specific fragment of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. was amplified. Furthermore, specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of E. bieneusi were applied to determine the genotype of the microorganism.
Results: Microsporidia was detected in 5.3% of stool samples, while none of the urine samples was positive for microsporidia species. Overall, 440 bp fragment of E. bieneusi was amplified in all the samples and there was no amplification for Encephalitozoon spp. The results of sequencing of 410 bp fragment of internal transcribed spacer region showed that all the E. bieneusi were genotype D.
Conclusion: E. bieneusi was the most prevalent microsporidian species in the stray dogs and all the positive isolates were characterized as genotype D.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Hormozgan Province, South of Iran
Background: Toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage or complications in the fetus. Diagnosis and treatment of this disease by anti-parasitic drugs especially in early pregnancy can help to prevent fetal infection and its complications. This study aimed to determine T. gondii infection in pregnant women, evaluate risk factors in the transmission of the disease and congenital toxoplasmosis.
Methods: Overall, 360 sera of pregnant women from 5 cities in the Hormozgan Province in southern Iran with different climate were evaluated from 2015-2016 for T. gondii infection by using ELISA method and positive cases of IgM and IgG were tested again using Avidity IgG ELISA. All cases were evaluated according to climate, acute and chronic of toxoplasmosis, number of pregnancy and abortion, epidemiological factors and food habits.
Results: Among 360 specimens T. gondii IgG + IgM antibodies were found positive in 0. 8% subjects and also 27% of samples had IgG seropositivity. A significant relationship was observed between age, sampling place, consumption of raw and half cooked meat, history of contact with cats, abortion history, number of children, and parity with IgG positive. In Avidity IgG ELISA test, 13 people with low avidity, 3 people with borderline avidity were reported.
Conclusion: 72. 2% of the population had no antibody against the disease that this could be a warning to the people and requires education of preventive and prenatal care and routine screening of women at childbearing age.
Ultrastructural Description of Sarcocystis Sp. in Cardiac Muscle of Naturally Infected Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Background: Recently, it was proposed the name of Sarcocystis masoni n. sp. for the Sarcocystis that causes microcyst in skeletal muscle of South American camelids. However, there are no ultrastructural reports of microcysts of Sarcocystis in cardiac muscle of alpacas. This study reports ultrastructural features of microcysts of Sarcocystis sp. from cardiac muscle of naturally infected alpacas.
Methods: Thirty alpacas (age range: three to five years) from the province of Junin, Peruvian Central Andes, were included in this study in January 2015. Cardiac muscle samples were evaluated by histology and transmission electron microscopy.
Results: Bradyzoites in cysts had typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including organelles, a large nucleus, micronemes, dense bodies, and polysaccharide granules. Moreover, cysts had a thin wall with numerous, short, finger-like shapes with rounded tip protrusions (0.51 x 0.17 µm).
Conclusion: Sarcocystis sp. from the heart and S. masoni n. sp. from the skeletal muscle have similar ultrastructural characteristics.
Letter to the Editor
Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection and Its Association with Anemia and Zinc Deficiency among Women in Nghe An Province, Vietnam
Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection and Its Association with Anemia and Zinc Deficiency among Women in Nghe An Province, Vietnam
Diagnostic Dilemma in Unusual Parasitic Infections and Their Presentations
Comment on “Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran”
Response Comment on” Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran”