Prevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Hormozgan Province, South of Iran
Background: Toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage or complications in the fetus. Diagnosis and treatment of this disease by anti-parasitic drugs especially in early pregnancy can help to prevent fetal infection and its complications. This study aimed to determine T. gondii infection in pregnant women, evaluate risk factors in the transmission of the disease and congenital toxoplasmosis.
Methods: Overall, 360 sera of pregnant women from 5 cities in the Hormozgan Province in southern Iran with different climate were evaluated from 2015-2016 for T. gondii infection by using ELISA method and positive cases of IgM and IgG were tested again using Avidity IgG ELISA. All cases were evaluated according to climate, acute and chronic of toxoplasmosis, number of pregnancy and abortion, epidemiological factors and food habits.
Results: Among 360 specimens T. gondii IgG + IgM antibodies were found positive in 0. 8% subjects and also 27% of samples had IgG seropositivity. A significant relationship was observed between age, sampling place, consumption of raw and half cooked meat, history of contact with cats, abortion history, number of children, and parity with IgG positive. In Avidity IgG ELISA test, 13 people with low avidity, 3 people with borderline avidity were reported.
Conclusion: 72. 2% of the population had no antibody against the disease that this could be a warning to the people and requires education of preventive and prenatal care and routine screening of women at childbearing age.
McLeod R, Lykins J, Noble AG, Rabiah P, Swisher CN, et al. Management of Congenital Toxoplasmosis. Curr Pediatr Rep. . 2014; 2: 166-194.
Meerburg BG, Kijlstra A. Changing climate—changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe. Parasitology research. 2009 Jun 1;105 (1):17-24.
Goldstein EJ, Montoya JG, Remington JS. Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47: 554-566.
Li X-L, Wei H-X, Zhang H, Peng H-J, Lindsay DS. A Meta Analysis on Risks of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Toxoplasma gondii Infection. PLoS One. 2014; 9: e97775.
Abdoli A, Dalimi A, Arbabi M, Ghaffarifar F. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of latent toxoplasmosis on mothers and their offspring. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014; 27: 1368–1374.
Torgerson PR, Mastroiacovo P. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2013; 91: 501-508.
Villard O, Cimon B, L’Ollivier C, Fricker-Hidalgo H, Godineau N, et al. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis. Diagnostic Microbiol infect Dis. 2016; 84: 22-33.
Zhang K, Lin G, Han Y, Li J. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2016; 461: 83-89.
Borna S, Shariat M, Fallahi M, Janani L. Prevalence of immunity to toxoplasmosis among Iranian childbearing age women: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Reprod Med. 2013; 11: 861-868.
Makiani MJ, Davoodian P, Golsha R, Dehghani M, Rajaee M, et al. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in the first trimester among pregnant women. Int Elec J Med. 2012; 1: 12-17.
Setoodeh Jahromi A, Safa O, Zare S, Davoodian P, Farshid Far G. Prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant women referred to Shariati Hospital, Bandar Abbas, Iran, 1999-2000. J Hormozgan Uni Med Sci. 2003; 4: 25-30.
Hormozgan Province. https://enwikipediaorg/wiki/Hormozgan_Province. 2017.
Hormozgan Province. http://www.hormozganmetir/fa.
Mostafavi, S. N., and L. Jalali Monfared. "Toxoplasmosis epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review." J Isfahan Med School 176.30 (2012): 1-15.
-McCabe, R. E., and J. S. Remington. "Toxoplasma gondii." Principles and practice of infectious diseases. (1990): 2090-2103.
-Dubey, J. P., et al. "Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology." Parasitology 139.11 (2012): 1375-1424.
-Zhou, Peng, et al. "Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China." Parasites & vectors 4.1 (2011): 165.
-Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis. In.. Collier, L., A. Balows, and M. TopleySussman. "Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, vol. 4." Arnold, London, Sydney, Auckland, New York (1998): 303-318.
-Doni, NebiyeYentur, et al. "Prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in female farmworkers of southeastern Turkey." The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 9.01 (2015): 087-093.
-Ghadamgahi, Fatemeh, et al. "Study of Serological Toxoplasmosis and Risk Factors Associated with Infection in Women Referred to Labs of Northern Tehran, Iran." Journal of Isfahan Medical School 31.248 (2013).
-Sharif, M., et al. "Serological survey of toxoplasmosis in women referred to medical health laboratory before marriage northern Iran 2003-2004." Int J Mol Med AdvSci 2.2 (2006): 134-7.
-Asgari, Qasem, et al. "Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, Southern Iran." Tropical animal health and production 43.2 (2011): 389-392.
23- Bahrieni, M., et al. "Risk factors analysis associated with seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT)." Iranian Journal of Parasitology 3.1 (2008): 38-43.
-Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Mandell Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia:Churchhill Livingston Elsevier; 2009.
-Lappalainen, Maija, and Klaus Hedman. "Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The impact of measurement of IgG avidity." Ann Ist Super Sanita 40.1 (2004): 81-8.
-Petersen, E., Borobio, M. V., Guy, E., Liesenfeld, O., Meroni, V., Naessens, A., ...&Thulliez, P. (2005). European multicenter study of the LIAISON automated diagnostic system for determination of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM and the IgG avidity index. Journal of clinical microbiology, 43(4), 1570-1574.
-Iqbal, J., & Khalid, N. (2007). Detection of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in early pregnancy by IgG avidity and PCR analysis. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 56(11), 1495-1499.
-Liesenfeld, Oliver, et al. "Effect of testing for IgG avidity in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women: experience in a US reference laboratory." Journal of Infectious Diseases 183.8 (2001): 1248-1253.
-Tanyuksel, Mehmet, et al. "Performance of the immunoglobulin G avidity and enzyme immunoassay IgG/IgM screening tests for differentiation of the clinical spectrum of toxoplasmosis." Journal Of Microbiology-Seoul- 42.3 (2004): 211-215.
-Villard, Odile, et al. "Comparison of four commercially available avidity tests for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies." Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 20.2 (2013): 197-204.
- Singh, Sarman, and Amol J. Pandit. "Incidence and prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Indian pregnant women: a prospective study." American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 52.4 (2004): 276-283.
|Issue||Vol 14 No 1 (2019)|
|Toxoplasma gondii Pregnant women Prevalence Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|