Vol 17 No 1 (2022)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 240 | views: 366 | pages: 1-9

    Background: We determined the occurrence frequency of Clinical signs, subclinical characteristics on positive anti-IgG Toxocara ELISA cases, and clinical response results after 1 month of albendazole-specific treatment. 

    Methods: A number of 103 clinically treated patients were studied between 2018 and 2019 in two hospitals. Relevant data are collected from examination and medical records such as age, sex, job, resident, clinical and sub-clinical signs. Sera samples were subjected to anti-IgG Toxocara antigen using ELISA. 

    Results: The median age of the patient was 43.6 ± 14.4 years. The most common symptom groups were the skin and mucosa (88.3%), followed by neurological symptoms (44%). There are 76.7% of patients with risk factors for contact with pet dogs and cats. The majority of eosinophils in the normal range (< 8%) accounted for 85.4%, the major results of the OD value of ELISA were in the group (≥ 0.3-< 1.5) accounted for 75.7%. The skin and mucosa lesions in toxocariasis patients related to IgE values were statistically significant (P <0.05). The effectiveness of anthelmintic treatment is low with nearly half of patients having no clinical symptoms after 1 month of post-treatment. It is statistically significant between exposure to dogs/cats and treatment outcomes on clinical symptoms (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Toxocara infections in Vietnamese people often have skin allergies and liver damage, rarely with severe neurological symptoms. The efficacy of albendazole treatment after one month is not clear. In the near future, research with a confirmatory test other than Anti-IgG Toxocara ELISA is needed to screen for in-hospital diagnosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 164 | views: 331 | pages: 10-17

    Background: Toxocariasis is a worldwide-distributed helminth parasitic infection. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in children living in Ardabil Province, North-West of Iran.

    Methods: A seroepidemiological study to evaluate human toxocariasis among urban and rural populations of Ardabil County, North-West of Iran using ELISA test was carried out from 2019 to 2020. The study population was 472 children (185 females and 287 males) aged between 5 and 15 yr old. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Toxocara spp. were analyzed by ELISA test.

    Results: Of the 472 collected serum samples, 66 (14.0%) were positive for antibodies against human toxocariasis. The highest prevalence of infection was observed in children with age groups of 5-6 years. Data demonstrate higher seroprevalence among males (15.3%) than females (11.8%). Rural areas prevalence was significantly higher (24.4%) than the urban area (8.65%). The rate of the diseases was 22.8% in children having history of contact with dog.

    Conclusion: Toxocariasis is prevalent in the children of Ardabil region. The present study can increase the awareness of the population about the risk of zoonotic diseases as well as the anthelmintic treatment of dogs by veterinarians and, more importantly, the control of stray dogs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 151 | views: 345 | pages: 18-27

    Background: Malaria is one of the major health problems in endemic countries like Afghanistan. Evidence has been reported about reducing the effects of chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum in many endemic countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mutations in pfmdr1 and pfdhfr genes of P. falciparum samples detected in blood samples of malaria patients in Laghman Province, Afghanistan.

    Methods: Samples were taken on DNA retention cards and 3 glass slides (thin and thick spread) from Laghman Province, Afghanistan in 2018. The pfmdr and pfdhfr mutations in 30 P. falciparum positive samples were examined using PCR-RFLP techniques. The PCR product was then sequenced to determine the mutation at the N86Y and D1246Y mutations of the pfmdr1 and N51, C59, I164, S108 and A16 points of pfdhfr genes.

    Results: In the pfmdr1 gene, all samples were wild-type and no mutation was detected at point 86 and D1246Y. In the pfdhfr gene sequences using CLC main workbench software no mutations were detected at codons 16, 51. However, some mutation was observed at codons 59, 108 and 164. These mutations were L164I, S108N and C59R.

    Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of the possible emergence of fansidar-resistant specimens in Laghman. The data of this study provide the basis for future prospective studies in other endemic areas of Afghanistan. The absence of significant mutations in P. falciparum samples of Laghman Province may indicate that this parasite may have switched to chloroquine re-sensitization in this area.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 122 | views: 290 | pages: 28-35

    Background: Today, the inhibitory effect of helminths on tumor cell growth has been proven. We investigated the anti-tumor activity of Marshallagia marshalli somatic against K562 cells.

     Methods: Different concentrations of M. marshalli somatic antigen were incorporated in the culture medium of K652 cells, and the proliferation and apoptosis were measured after 24, 48, and 72 h, using MTT and Annexin V/PI staining assay.

    Results:  Treatment of cells with 1-2 mg/ml antigen for 24-72 h could suppress cell proliferation and increase apoptosis. While treating cells with 0.1 mg/ml antigen for 72 h could inhibit cell growth. There was no meaningful effect on treated cells in comparison with the control group (P< 0.05) after incubating cells for 24- 48 h with 0.1 mg/ml antigen.

    Conclusion: M. marshalli somatic antigen had an anti-cancer property, and its role in cancer treatment could be considered as an effective therapeutic method.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 170 | views: 303 | pages: 36-42

    Background: We aimed to evaluate Sarcocystis contamination in conventional and industrial raw beef burger samples from butcheries and retail stores in Hamadan, western Iran.

    Methods: Overall, 80 samples including 30 conventional and 50 industrial hamburgers were randomly obtained from different butcheries and supermarkets. All specimens were studied by digestion method following microscopic examination. Samples` genomic ribosomal DNA were amplified and nucleotide sequences were analyzed by BLAST for comparison with the sequences in the gene bank of the NCBI.

    Results: Sarcocystis bradyzoites were detected in 46 of 80 (57.6%) samples. Positive specimens were included as 46 (57.6%) and 30 (37.5%) by digestion and molecular method, respectively. Differences between two studied (digestion and molecular) methods was statistically significant (P=0.00). Twenty-six (86.5 %) of 30 conventional beef burgers and 20 (40%) of 50 industrial burgers were positive for Sarcocystis sp. by digestion method. There was a significant difference between Sarcocystis infested conventional and industrial beef burgers (P=0.01).

    Conclusion: The parasitic contamination of beef burgers implied a high level of infection in cattle. Felids as the definitive hosts for S. bovifelis urged on the improvement of the hygienic conditions of keeping and feeding livestock in order to reduce the infection. Molecular techniques confirm species in meat products with high sensitivity and distinguish it from human species.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 208 | views: 473 | pages: 43-52

    Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is an acute and fulminant CNS infection caused by Naegleria fowleri. Recreational activities and ritual ablution with contaminated warm fresh water are the main reason of PAM. Pakistan ranked the second most affected country, where most of the PAM incidences were reported from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Methods: In May, 2019, a 28-yr-old suspected PAM patient came to the Imam Zain-Ul-Abdin Hospital, Karachi. Biochemical and cytological investigations of patient`s CSF were carried out at Karachi Diagnostic Center and Molecular Biology Lab. Sequencing of Naegleria sp. specific (ITS) primer-based amplicons was performed from both patient`s CSF and water samples followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic studies.

    Results: Biochemical and cytological investigations of patient`s CSF showed 5 mg/dl glucose, 240 mg/dl total protein and 2260/mm3 TLC suggesting acute meningoencephalitis. PCR-based analyses of patient`s CSF and his residential tap water samples using Naegleria sp. specific (ITS) and N. fowleri specific primers revealed the presence of N. fowleri DNA. Nucleotide sequences of ITS primer-based amplicons from both patient`s CSF and water samples were submitted in GenBank under the accession numbers MT726981.1 and MT726226.1, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis, N. fowleri isolate from Pakistan has shown the least node age of seven.

    Conclusion: Here, for the very first time in Pakistan, N. fowleri genotype has been identified as type-2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that N. fowleri isolate from Pakistan is among the latest descendants, i.e., evolved later in life.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 112 | views: 302 | pages: 53-61

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect humans and animals. As the choice drug have shown side effects, development a new drug with low toxicity will be necessary.

    Methods: BALB/c mice were infected with tachyzoiets of T. gondii. After treatment by oral and parenteral artemether (250 µg/mice) and sulfadiazine (50 µg/mice), we evaluated the rates of survival in treated and control mice. The fold change of B1 gene (target gene) expression in liver and brain of mice treated with parenteral artemether (i.p.), oral artemether (via gavage) and sulfadiazine, were detected by using the Real-Time quantitative PCR.

    Results: Both treatment with sulfadiazine and artemether showed significant prolongation in time to death of the infected mice compared to the control group. Median survival days for parenteral artemether, oral artemether, sulfadiazine and control group were 8, 11, 12 and 6 d respectively. Expression of B1 gene in liver and brain of mice after treatment with artemether and sulfadiazine were reduced in comparison to housekeeping gene (β-tubulin gene). The fold change (comparing to control group) for parenteral artemether, oral artemether, sulfadiazine is 0.034, 0.027 and 0.111 for liver and 0.220, 0.425 and 0.366 for brain respectively.

    Conclusion: Artemether is effective to control the tachyzoites of T. godii in vivo conditions and oral treatment is more effective than parenteral treatment. Due to its low cytotoxicity and its high effective action against the tachyzoietes of T. godii in susceptible animals.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 117 | views: 226 | pages: 62-69

    Background: To describe the clinicopathological features of human coenurosis diagnosed at a single center in an academic Anatomical Pathology Laboratory, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Methods: This was a 10-year retrospective laboratory based study, from 2011-2020, which reappraised the clinical presentation, histomorphological tissue reaction patterns and outcomes in patients diagnosed with coenurosis.

    Results: Five cases of coenurosis and 19 cases of cysticercosis were diagnosed during the study period. Following re-appraisal of the slides, 6 cases of coenurosis were confirmed and included in the study cohort. The anatomical distribution of disease was as follows: brain (1), liver (1), eye (1) and soft tissue (3). There were 3 males and 3 females and the patients’ age ranged from 2 to 46 (mean 22.2) yr. Three patients were HIV positive whilst the clinical history of the infection was not available for the other 3 patients. All patients presented with mass effect related symptoms, ranging from headache to a painful soft tissue swelling. Two cases displayed synovial metaplasia in addition to characteristic chronic subacute inflammation and fibrosis. One case had supportive inflammation. Two cases comprised of coenuri exclusively and therefore it was not possible to assess tissue reaction.

    Conclusion: We describe the first cases of human coenurosis in HIV positive patients and for the first time report synovial metaplasia as one of the reaction patterns of coenurosis. Whenever cysticercosis and hydatidosis are considered clinically, a negative serology should prompt clinicians to consider coenurosis in addition to the neoplastic diagnostic considerations.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 159 | views: 424 | pages: 70-78

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the rate of infection by endoparasites amongst rodents in the western regions of Iran to enhance the level of knowledge amongst health authorities in this entity.

    Methods: This study was conducted in the west and southwest of Kurdistan Province, including the cities of Sanandaj, Marivan, and Sarvabad. The field mission of this work was performed in three seasons’ spring, summer, and autumn. The rodents were captured alive and their gastrointestinal tracts were evaluated for the worm endoparasites.

    Results: Herein, 208 rodents from 15 types of seven species, including Apodemus, Meriones, Mus, Sciurus, Cricetulus, Microtus, and Dryomys, were captured. In addition, 67 (32.21%) rodents were infected with endoparasites and 10 types of worms endoparasites, including Syphacia muris, Streptophagus spp., Mastophorus muris, Skrjabinema spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Trichuris muris, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis dimimuta, Heligmosomoide spp., and other oxiuros were isolated from their gastrointestinal tracts. Most of these parasites (60%) were isolated from their small intestine whereas they were least (10%) found in their stomach and cecum.

    Conclusion: Having compared the results of this study with other studies in different regions of Iran, there is a higher variety of rodents and worm parasites in these regions of Iran.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 108 | views: 243 | pages: 79-89

    Background: The present study determined the effect of the fractions obtained from Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom on the tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Methods: The fractions of dried venom of He. lepturus scorpion of Khuzestan Province, southern Iran in 2019 were isolated through gel filtration chromatography, and then tachyzoites were exposed to fractions of venom at different concentrations. Trypan blue counting and MTT were applied to assay tachyzoite viability, and the inhibition of the cellular growth of fractions in Vero cells was evaluated.

    Results: The maximum effect on tachyzoite was observed in fraction 5 of venom. To further separate the protein, fraction 5 was used in high-performance liquid chromatography assay to purify its proteins. Based on the results of HPLC of fraction 5, among which the second peak, a peptide with <10 KDa representing a more potent effect in eliminating the tachyzoite of T. gondii.

    Conclusion: The scorpion venom-purified fractions possess anti-parasitic activity against the tachyzoite of T. gondii and can be used in parasite-controlling studies.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 156 | views: 369 | pages: 90-95

    Background: Blastocystis sp., located in the large intestine, is one of the most common zoonotic parasites. Risk factors affect its prevalence and pathogenicity, and it causes gastrointestinal disorders. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the Blastocystis sp. prevalence and its relationship with gastrointestinal disorders, in patients referred to laboratories, and provide some prevention strategies.

    Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 1,000 stool specimens were collected from patients referred to Ilam, Iran laboratories from 2018-2019. Wet mount method was conducted on samples, and suspected specimens were confirmed using trichrome staining. The demographic and clinical information was recorded in a questionnaire. Finally, the results were analyzed using the SPSS.

    Results: Blastocystis infection was detected in 81 out of 1,000 patients (8.1%) including 61 (75.3%) males and 20 (24.7%) females. and illiterate people were more at risk. The prevalence in rural was more than urban areas, and it was more in the age group of 31-50 year.

    Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between Blastocystis sp. and risk factors (age, sex, level of education, and residence) and clinical symptoms (stomach ache and nausea) (P<0.05), but interestingly there was no significant relationship between bloating and diarrhea.Blastocystis hominis

Case Report(s)