Original Article

Evaluation of Drug Resistant Genotypes to Fansidar and Chloroquine by Studying Mutation in Pfdhfr and Pfmdr1 Genes in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Laghman Province, Afghanistan


Background: Malaria is one of the major health problems in endemic countries like Afghanistan. Evidence has been reported about reducing the effects of chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum in many endemic countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mutations in pfmdr1 and pfdhfr genes of P. falciparum samples detected in blood samples of malaria patients in Laghman Province, Afghanistan.

Methods: Samples were taken on DNA retention cards and 3 glass slides (thin and thick spread) from Laghman Province, Afghanistan in 2018. The pfmdr and pfdhfr mutations in 30 P. falciparum positive samples were examined using PCR-RFLP techniques. The PCR product was then sequenced to determine the mutation at the N86Y and D1246Y mutations of the pfmdr1 and N51, C59, I164, S108 and A16 points of pfdhfr genes.

Results: In the pfmdr1 gene, all samples were wild-type and no mutation was detected at point 86 and D1246Y. In the pfdhfr gene sequences using CLC main workbench software no mutations were detected at codons 16, 51. However, some mutation was observed at codons 59, 108 and 164. These mutations were L164I, S108N and C59R.

Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of the possible emergence of fansidar-resistant specimens in Laghman. The data of this study provide the basis for future prospective studies in other endemic areas of Afghanistan. The absence of significant mutations in P. falciparum samples of Laghman Province may indicate that this parasite may have switched to chloroquine re-sensitization in this area.

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IssueVol 17 No 1 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v17i1.9012
Afghanistan Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Fansidar Drug resistant

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How to Cite
Dalimi A, Mosawi SH, Fotouhi-Ardakani R, Dalirghafari A. Evaluation of Drug Resistant Genotypes to Fansidar and Chloroquine by Studying Mutation in Pfdhfr and Pfmdr1 Genes in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Laghman Province, Afghanistan. Iran J Parasitol. 2022;17(1):18-27.