Vol 16 No 3 (2021)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 252 | views: 355 | pages: 348-356

    Background: We aimed to investigate the potential effects of BCG and imiquimod on improvement of current experimental L. major vaccine against dogs in an endemic area of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Iran.

    Methods: During 2012 till 2014, seven mixedbreed shepherd dogs with no anti-Leishmania antibodies and no response to Leishmanin reagent were immunized with 2 doses of alum-precipitated autoclaved L. major (Alum-AML) while BCG and imiquimod (for skin pre-treatment) were used as adjuvants. The productions of a few characteristic cytokines of T-helper immune responses and the development of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) of the immunized animals were then evaluated, up to 300 days. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 80 and 300 d post-vaccination and the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL10, IL-12 and TGF-β cytokines secreted from PBMCs at these time-points were quantified by ELISA. DTH was evaluated by Leishmanin skin test (LST).

    Results: Although a similar LST conversion was observed at all time-points, the cytokine measurement results indicated significantly higher levels of IFN-γ at day 80 and elevated levels of IL-10 at days 80 and 300, post-vaccination. Moreover, a significantly higher IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was observed at day 30 post-vaccination compared to the other time-points.

    Conclusion: Although a Th1-like response could be observed at day 30 post-vaccination, the development of cytokine profiles was inclined toward mixed Th1 and Th2 responses at days 80 and 300 post-vaccination. This situation may indicate the requirement of an additional boosting by this Alum-AML formula, in order to induce long-lasting protection against ZVL.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 243 | views: 358 | pages: 357-365

    Background: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is an emergent or re-emergent zoonosis and remains a public health and economic problem all over the world.

    Methods:  The present study was carried on the prevalence and genotypes of Echinococcus present in small ruminants in Kashmir valley. A total of 2100, sheep (2052) and goats (48), slaughtered or spontaneously dead, from various areas of Kashmir valley were screened for the presence of hydatidosis. In case of goat none of the cases were found positive for hydatidosis, whereas, all the positive cases (85) were recorded in sheep only. The overall prevalence of hydatidosis was 4.04%. The prevalence was higher in female sheep (5.46%) compared to males (2.83%). Season-wise highest prevalence was in summer (4.55%), followed by autumn (4.1%), spring (3.89%) and winter (2.5%).The liver was observed to be the most frequently infected organ with relative prevalence of 61.17% followed by lungs (38.82%).The rDNA-ITS1 fragment of positive samples was amplified with BD1 / 4S primers.

    Results: The length of amplified fragment for all isolated samples was 1000bps. The products obtained on PCR were digested with four restriction enzymes (Rsa 1, Alu 1, Msp 1 and Taq1). Rsa 1, Alu 1, Msp 1 yielded identical fragments, 300 and 700 bp in sheep. TaqI restriction enzyme had no effect on PCR product and after digestion; intact 1000bps fragment was seen.

    Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 gene revealed that the common sheep strain (G1) is the predominant genotype in sheep in Kashmir valley.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 140 | views: 333 | pages: 366-376

    Background: We aimed to determine whether neutralizing high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) prevents the release of HMGB-1 and proinflammatory cytokines on hemozoin (Hz)-induced alveolar epithelial cell in a model of malaria associated ALI/ARDS.

    Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand in 2020. Human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) were exposed to medium alone or 20 µM Hz for 24 h and incubated with different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 µg/ml) of anti-HMGB-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for various times (0, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h). The levels of HMGB-1, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. The mRNA expression of RAGE, TLR-2 and TLR-4 were analyzed by real-time PCR.

    Results: The HPAEpiCs treated with 10 µg/ml anti-HMGB-1 mAb showed a significant reduction in HMGB-1 release into the supernatant compared with those treated with 1 and 5 µg/ml anti-HMGB-1 mAb. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in the supernatant of HPAEpiCs treated with 1, 5, and 10 µg/ml anti-HMGB-1 mAb for 4, 12, 24, and 48 h compared with those stimulated with Hz alone. The mRNA expression levels of RAGE, TLR-2, and TLR-4 were significantly decreased after 24 h of anti-HMGB-1 antibody treatment at all concentrations.

    Conclusions: An anti-HMGB-1 antibody could be an effective agent for inhibiting the release of HMGB-1, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Furthermore, a neutralizing anti-HMGB-1 antibody could be applicable for the treatment of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 139 | views: 308 | pages: 377-385

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Correct identification of infected patients and reservoirs is vital to control the spread of VL. One important step in the control of Zoonotic Visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum. We aimed to prepare and evaluate a new recombinant antigen using Bioinformatics tools for diagnosis of ZVL in domestic dogs.

    Methods: The present study was carried out in Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran  during 2015- 2018. Three L. infantum (JPCM5 strain) proteins were analyzed as follows: Nucleotide sequences of the surface proteins, putative amastin-like surface protein (P1), surface antigen protein 2 precursor (P2) and surface antigen-like protein (P3). The epitopes were predicted by several different bioinformatics servers using different methods. The predicted epitopes were selected with the highest immunogenic potential (P1P2P3) linked to each other with linkers (Gly, Se) and synthesized. Then the expression and protein purification were performed. In total, 114 serum samples were collected at 7 months. Positive and negative sera were confirmed using direct agglutination test (DAT). These recombinant antigens from L. infantum were used by indirect ELISA.

    Results: Considering the cut-off point of 0.23, the test showed a sensitivity of 98% (95%CI=89.50%-99.90%) and a specificity of 95.31% (95%CI=87.10%-98.72%). Kappa analysis indicated very good agreement (kappa=0.831) between ELISA and DAT (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: ELISA using the recombinant protein P1P2P3 has great potential for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL).

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 160 | views: 292 | pages: 386-393

    Background: An apicomplexan protozoon Neospora caninum, causative agent of neosporosis, is recognized as one of the most common and important cause of sporadic and endemic bovine abortion and reduced reproductivity in dairy and beef cattle worldwide. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between N. caninum seroprevalence and infertility problems in 400 cows in Burdur city, Turkey.

    Methods: Blood samples were collected from vena jugularis into sterile serum tubes from 49 aborted, 58 infertil, 48 pregnant and 245 healthy cows for the findings of reproductive anamnesis during a period of March 2010 to March 2011. Sera samples were analyzed by competitive ELISA kit.

    Results: The seroprevalences were 7.7%, 6.4% and 4.2% in 2-4, ≤2 and ≥4 age groups respectively and no statistically significance observed between age groups. Seropositivity rates were 5.7%, 5.1%, 4.5%, 3.6% in Holstein, Montofon, cross-breeds and Simental breeds respectively. Seroprevalence differences was not statistically significant among cattle breeds. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in rates of 16.3%, 6.9%, 6.3%, 2.4% in aborted, infertile, pregnant and healthy cows respectively and there was a significant difference (P<0.01) between aborted and healthy animals. Seroprevalences were Yeşilova 10%, Gölhisar and Ağlasun 8%, Bucak, Çavdır and Kemer 4%, Karamanlı and Burdur Centrum 2%, according to districts.

    Conclusion: The seroprevalence of N. caninum was revealed in Burdur region. It was emphasized that N. caninum infection should not be ignored in reproductive problems, especially in abortion cases.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 156 | views: 576 | pages: 394-401

    Background: Parasitic infections represent one of the main public health problems in humans according to the WHO. Therefore, the need has arisen to find new treatments that can be used as an alternative cure to parasitosis. We aimed to investigate the in-vitro effects of the methanolic extract of Kalanchoe daigremontiana as well as its main component, quercetin against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Methods: For this purpose, the in-vitro activity of the methanol extract of K. daigremontiana also its main component, quercetin, against trophozoites of E. histolytica and T. vaginalis was evaluated, using the microassay technique. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was determined. Finally, the cytotoxic and cytoprotective capacity was determined using the hemolysis technique.

    Results: The IC50 indicated that quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of the trophozoite stage of E. histolytica and T. vaginalis in comparison to the methanolic extract of K. daigremontiana (KalL). Also, quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) was a better antioxidant as compared with the positive control. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that KalL as compared with quercetin exhibited more cytotoxicity against human erythrocytes. Quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exhibited better cytoprotective activity compared to KalL.

    Conclusion: Both K. daigremontiana methanolic extract and quercetin alone demonstrated high antiparasitic activity against E. histolytica and T. vaginalis. However, the in-vivo efficacy of K. daigremontiana and quercetin also requires to be evaluated using an animal model.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 131 | views: 279 | pages: 402-410

    Background: Linguatula serrata is a causative agent of visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis in humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immune response of dogs experimentally infected by L. serrata with ELISA.

    Methods: Five puppies were infected by inserting the L. serrata nymphs in their nasal cavities (infected group) in the Department of Parasitology of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, during 2018-2019. Three animals were kept as the non-infected control group. Blood samples were collected from the animals for seven months at approximately monthly intervals for serum preparation. Nasal samples were taken weekly from the fourth month. ELISA was designed and performed on 64 sera (24 negatives, and 40 positives) using somatic (S), and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens.

    Results: Overall, 100% of the animals were infected with the parasite. Based on the results of ELISA, the ES antigen (sensitivity 95% and specificity 92%) was more preferred than the S antigen (sensitivity 95% and specificity 85%). Female parasites had significant effects on the immune response. There was a significant correlation between the clinical symptoms and the presence of female parasites (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: The results showed a practical method for dogs' experimental infection. ELISA method is suitable for the detection of infection at different stages of development, especially before the maturation stage of the parasite. In this regard, the ES antigen of the parasite was more immunogenic. Therefore, ELISA can be used as a serological method in the early detection and epidemiological studies of infection with L. serrata in dogs.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 169 | views: 389 | pages: 411-417

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan pathogen of the human genitourinary tract, which is the cause of trichomoniasis. The disease is one of the most important non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. Many studies have been performed on the molecular identification of Trichomonas in men in different parts of the world, but in Iran, such a study has been very limited. We aimed to detect T. vaginalis in urine of men with unusual sexual behavior by wet mount microscopic observation, culturing in TYM-33 and molecular method in Tehran, Iran.

    Methods: Totally, 47 urine samples were collected from men with high-risk sexual behaviors referred to Health Care Centers in South of Tehran, Iran during 2017-2018. After urine centrifugation and wet mount sediment preparation, the samples were cultured in TYM-33 medium and examined microscopically. Then DNA was extracted from urine sediment samples and finally the 18srRNA gene was amplified by PCR.

    Results: Thirty-one (65.95%) urine samples were positive for T. vaginalis by PCR. Of these, only 6 (12.76%) were detected positive by wet mount method and 25 (53.19%) by culture and successive passages. 

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of trichomoniasis among men with high-risk sexual behavior in Tehran indicates a potent health risk condition for families. Of course, this percentage is not the real infection rate in ordinary men in Tehran. This situation could be controlled by promoting concurrent diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis infection in men and women, as well as strengthening religious beliefs and health education in the individuals.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 182 | views: 339 | pages: 418-425

    Background: Stray cats are considered an important source of various human and animal diseases, particularly diseases of parasitic helminths. We aimed to investigate the distribution of zoonotic species of gastrointestinal helminths in stray cats in Meshkin-Shahr district in Ardabil Province in the northwest of Iran.

    Methods: The gastrointestinal tract of 104 stray cats from villages of Meshkin-Shahr district were provided during 2014-2015. Each gastrointestinal tract was cut into distinct sections, including esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and each section was examined separately for detection of helminths. Helminths were collected and then identified at the species level after clearing and staining.

    Results: Overall, 88 out of 104 cats (84.6%) were found to be infected with at least one gastrointestinal helminth. The rate of infection for each species was as follows: Toxocara mystax (syn. cati) (49%), Taenia taeniaeformis (44.2%), Joyexiella pasqualei (32.7%), Dipylidium caninum (23.1%), Rictularia cahirensis (4.8%), and Physaloptera praeputialis (4.8%). Among these parasites, only Ph. praeputialis was collected from the stomach, all other helminths were collected from the small intestine.

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate a high infection rate of stray cats with zoonotic helminths. The presence of zoonotic species in stray cats, particularly T. mystax, has public health importance.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 117 | views: 262 | pages: 426-434

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that migrates through macrophages or dendritic cells to neurons and nerve cells. Glia Maturation Factor (GMF) is a pre-inflammatory protein that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). GMFβ expression is related to IL33 and CCL2 and SDF1 in some neurodegenerative diseases. According to the importance of GMFβ in neurodegenerative diseases and its association with IL33, CCL2 and SDF1 genes, this study was designed to determine the level of expression of these genes in the brains of mice with acute toxoplasmosis.

    Methods: Tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strains were injected to 5 Swiss Albino mice. At the same time, healthy mice were inoculated with the Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Their brains were removed and kept at -70 oC in order to RNA extraction, cDNA syntheses and Real Time PCR performance. The level of gene expression was investigated with SYBR Green Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Results: GMFβ gene expression increased significantly (P=0.003) 3.26 fold in Toxoplasma infected mice in comparison to the control. GMFβ gene expression was associated with increased expression level of IL33, CCL2, and SDF1 genes.

    Conclusion: Considering the prominent role of GMFβ in CNS as well as the immune system, the elevation of GMFβ, IL33, CCL2 and SDF1 genes expression in the early stage of toxoplasmosis is associated with the occurrence of neuropathological alterations. Detection of these genes as an indication of brain damage in the early stages of Toxoplasma infection can prevent neurodegenerative disorders following acquired toxoplasmosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 179 | views: 286 | pages: 435-442

    Background: Dogs play an important role in transmission of parasites and zoonotic diseases, especially in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of internal parasites in stray and pet dogs in Palestine.

    Methods: Fecal samples were collected during the period between Jan to May 2019. A total of 150 fecal samples were collected and tested for parasites using sedimentation and flotation techniques. The targeted dogs were both pet dogs and stray dogs and were grouped according to gender and age.

    Results: Although there was no significant difference in infestation between males and females, the prevalence rate of infestation in males was 63.1% compared to females 72.4%. Dogs of ages under one year had similar rate of infestation compared to older dogs with a rate of 67.3% and 67.4% respectively. Infestations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in stray dogs 81.4% compared to pet dogs 48.4%. The highest infestation rate was with Toxocara canis 46.0% followed by Dipylidium caninum 23.0%, Echinococcus spp. 14.0% ,Isosopora canis  9.0%, Ancylostoma caninum 8.0%, Giarda spp. 5.0%, Strongyloides spp. 4.0%, Trichuris vulpis 3.0%, and Cryptosporidium spp. 3.0%.

    Conclusion: Local dogs in Palestine, especially stray dogs, are infested with different types of intestinal parasites that may cause many common and non-common diseases to humans. To prevent the spread of these parasites, future public health should be proposed and applied by authorities to achieve a healthy status of the residents in the country. Health awareness spread among people about the seriousness of the diseases transmitted by dogs must also be activated.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 162 | views: 274 | pages: 443-453

    Background: Leishmaniasis is characterized by strong inflammatory responses with high levels of inflammatory cytokines that induce microRNA 21 and matrix metalloproteinases. Melittin has inhibitory effects on proliferation of various cells via induction of apoptosis. Melittin can be integrated in cell membranes and induce apoptosis. Thus, designation of biomolecules for the selective destroy of the infected cells is a treatment option. One approach is the precise engineering of constructs for the selective expression of melittin in the infected cells.

    Methods: For this aim we designed a construct composing melittin nucleotide sequence and nucleotide sequence coding for polyanionic peptide function inhibitory element to further guarantee the selective function of melittin in inflamed tissues and infected cells, were included in a construct as melittin inhibitor via matrix metalloproteinase degradable linker.

    Results: Reverse complementary sequences were designed so melittin sequences for the selective targeting of Leishmania could be expressed in infected cells using cell microRNA machinery.

    Conclusion: Translation machinery in infected cells with increased miR-21 could translate melittin, MMP linker and polyanionic inhibitor through a non-canonical pathway. Then, the MMP linker is degraded and selective killing of Leishmania infected cells would happen.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 141 | views: 260 | pages: 454-463

    Background: Multicellular parasites Angiostrogylus cantonensis larvae develop in the final host rat brain at the fourth stage (L4) and migrate to the lungs by the adult stage. The potential mechanism of its blood-brain barrier (BBB) passage remains unclear.

    Methods: By using Illumina Hiseq/Miseq sequencing, we obtained the transcriptomes of 3 groups of adult males and 3 groups of female of A. cantonensis to generate similarly expressed genes (SEGs) between 2 genders at the adult stage. Next 2 groups of L4 expressed genes were used to compared with SEGs to create differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 2 life stages to unlock potential mechanism of BBB passage.

    Results: In total, we obtained 381 581 802 clean reads and 56 990 699 010 clean bases. Of these, 331 803 unigenes and 482 056 transcripts were successfully annotated. A total of 3 166 DEGs between L4 and adults SEGs were detected. Annotation of these DEGs showed 167 were down-regulated and 181 were up-regulated. Pathway analysis exhibited that calcium signaling pathway, the ECM−receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cysteine and methionine metabolism were highly associated with DEGs. The function of these pathways might be related to BBB traversal, as well as neuro-regulation, interactions between parasite and host, environmental adaption.

    Conclusion: This study expanded the regulatory characteristics of the two important life stages of A. cantonensis. This information may provide a better appreciation of the biological features of the stages of the parasitic A. cantonensis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 179 | views: 308 | pages: 464-473

    Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) like zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), is a widespread infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Various medications are used for treating the disease, but several side effects and drug resistance have been reported. Herbal medicines are unlimited sources for discovering new medications to treat infectious diseases. We aimed to determine the leishmanicidal activity of three species of Iranian Artemisia herbal plant extracts in in-vitro.

    Methods: In-vitro anti-leishmanial activity of ethanolic extracts on both promastigotes and amastigotes was determined by using MTT method. IC50, CC50, EC50 and SI were calculated. The study was done in 2019-2020 in Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

    Results: All of the three Artemisia species significantly reduced the number of parasite promastigotes. Among them, A. persica had the highest leishmanicidal activity against parasite promastigotes. Cytotoxicity assay elucidated that the Artemisia had no toxicity to the host cells, and killed the L. major amastigotes very efficiently. By increasing the dose of extracts, the parasite number in both phases (promastigotes and amastigotes) was reduced significantly.

    Conclusion: These results indicated satisfactory anti-leishmanial activity of Artemisia extracts against ZCL in-vitro. Accordingly, Artemisia ethanolic extracts might be considered as a strong, effective and safe herbal compound for clearing the L. major with less toxicity to the host macrophages cells. Hence, it may be recognized as an excellent herbal therapy for treating the ZCL.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 158 | views: 276 | pages: 474-482

    Background: Opisthorchis viverrini is one of the endemic helminths in Thailand. Nonetheless, O. viverrini still exist and raise concerns regarding public health. This study aimed to evaluate the current prevalence of O. viverrini infections and underlying risk factors among rural communities in Northeast Thailand.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between Sep and Dec 2019 in Phon Sawan district in Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand. The participants were selected using a voluntary sampling method after the proportional allocation of the total sample size. Demographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. One stool sample was collected from each participant and the presence of O. viverrini and other intestinal parasite infections were determined using the modified Kato-Katz technique.

    Results: Overall, 250 participants aged 21 yr or older were enrolled. Overall, the prevalence of O. viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.8-29.8) and 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2-3.5), respectively. Of the positive O. viverrini cases, the parasite rate significantly differed between gender, age group and in those who had a history of eating raw fish and taking the anti-helminthic drug (all P<0.05). Nevertheless, multivariate regression analysis among O. viverrini cases revealed that only being male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.9 [95% CI: 1.1 – 3.6], P = 0.033) and aged ≥61 yr (aOR 6.7 [95% CI: 1.4 – 32.5], P=0.018) were positively associated with a higher risk of O. viverrini infection.

    Conclusion: Opisthorchiasis and strongyloidiasis are still endemic in this area and there is a need for projects to eliminate these parasites.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 159 | views: 297 | pages: 483-489

    Background: We aimed to identify Neospora caninum DNA in the brain samples of aborted fetuses of cattle, goats, and sheep in Mazandaran, northern Iran, using PCR.

    Methods: In total, 133 aborted fetuses (51 sheep, 78 cattle, and 4 goats) were randomly collected from different stages of gestation in various regions of Mazandaran, Iran, from Mar 2016 to May 2017. The DNA was extracted from all the brain samples using phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol instructions. The Nc-5 gene was used for the detection of N. caninum DNA by nested-PCR assay.

    Results: The detection of N. caninum DNA was confirmed by the observation of a 227 bp band in 24 samples of 133 aborted fetuses (18.1%). The highest prevalence rate of N. caninum was detected in the cattle (20.5%) followed by the sheep (15.6%); however, no positive cases were reported in the goats. The highest and lowest prevalence rates of the infection were reported as 23.8% and 8.6% in Qaemshahr, and Behshahr, respectively. The prevalence rate of infection (32%) in the early gestational period was higher than those in the middle (15%) and late (3.8%) gestational periods.

    Conclusion: The obtained data of the present study indicated that N. caninum infection may partly be responsible for abortion and economic loss in livestock farming in Mazandaran Province.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 142 | views: 269 | pages: 490-498

    Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the main vectors borne and neglected tropical parasitic diseases. T cell cytokine responses are highly important in the presentations of disease such as control or progression, and understanding of the host immunological response is valuable in diagnosis, follow-up, and vaccine designs. In the current study, the profile of IFN-ɤ, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines was investigated through the ELISA technique in PBMCs isolated from antimony resistance and susceptible patients.

    Methods: In this experimental study, 54 patients with healing (n=27) or non-healing (n=27) CL were recruited. Lesion samples were collected to determine the genotype of Leishmania spp. and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained to evaluate the cytokines profiles using soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) mitogen. Cytokines were assessed by the ELISA technique

    Results: The IFN-ɤ and TNF-α cytokines were significantly increased in the healing group treated with both SLA antigen and PHA mitogen (P<0.001). The level of IL-10 was significantly increased in non-healing and significantly declined in healing groups (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: The profile of IFN-ɤ, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines are crucially associated with the response of treatment.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 172 | views: 360 | pages: 499-505

    Background: In Turkey, an increase of scabies cases was detected since the last quarter of 2019. During the same period, Turkey was also under the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic affecting the whole world. This study aimed to determine the current situation of scabies cases in increasing incidence during COVID-19 pandemic days and to create a scientific resource for the measures to be taken.

    Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in July 2020 and the records of patients diagnosed with scabies in health institutions in Kırklareli Province between Jan 2017-June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.

    Results: Average number of cases before Sep 2019, when cases began to exceed the expected value, was calculated as 31.7±12.0 and after Sep 2019 it was calculated as 129.8±53.6 (P<0.001, CI 95%). The number of scabies cases which increased before the pandemic and reached the epidemic level, decreased dramatically in Mar and Apr 2020. This period was also the period in which the measures taken for the COVID-19 pandemic were most strictly applied. In May and June, the epidemic continued from where it left off.

    Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic which affects the whole world may create a new opportunity to combat infectious diseases. Not only for COVID-19 but also many infectious diseases, it is necessary to fix the negative socioeconomic and socio-cultural conditions and ensure the sustainability of the new social conditions to be created.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 146 | views: 241 | pages: 506-511

    Background: We aimed to report the demographic characteristics with diagnosis and treatment methods in patients with concomitant hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts.

    Methods: Over a ten-year period (from 2002–2020) in Konya, Turkey, surgery was performed on 52 patients with hepatopulmonary hydatid cyst. Main outcome measure(s) were 52 hydatid cysts patients, which had cysts both in the liver and lungs, were investigated regarding their age, gender, cyst localization, suppuration, symptoms, and treatment methods.

    Results: Seventeen of the patients were males. Their mean age was 39.7±18.8 years. The most common occupation was housewifery. The most common symptom was coughing and none of the patients with concomitant hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts was asymptomatic. The pulmonary hydatid cysts were mostly encountered in the right lung and the majority of the hepatic hydatid cysts were observed in the right lobe. The mean hospitalization time of the operated patients was 17.12±6.7 days.

    Conclusion: In patients with hydatid cysts localized concomitantly in the right lung and subdiaphragmatic area, right thoracotomy for the pulmonary cyst and a transdiaphragmatic approach for the hepatic cyst is a safe, effective, and comfortable method.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 163 | views: 252 | pages: 512-517

    Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder characterized by chronic relapsing episodes of psychosis. The disease is multifactorial, where infections, genetic vulnerability and environmental factors are involved in the development of the illness. Toxoplasma gondii is one of the parasites that has long been known associated with schizophrenia in many studies. To date, there is growing evidence of association between T. gondii infections and schizophrenia. Herein we report a rare case of reactivated toxoplasmosis in a schizophrenia individual. This patient was incidentally diagnosed with reactivated T. gondii infection. He denied any symptoms of toxoplasmosis but experienced a mild psychiatric auditory hallucination. Serology test for T. gondii immunoglobulin antibodies measured a high positive IgG titer (135.9 IU/ml) and negative for IgM. Interestingly, nested PCR exhibited a positive result for the type I strain of T. gondii dense granular (GRA) 7 gene (GRA7). This case highlights the detection of probable reactivation of toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent schizophrenic patient without psychiatric treatment-resistant and remains asymptomatic for toxoplasmosis. Both serology and molecular tools have been a helpful aid in establishing the diagnosis. Nonetheless, early detection as in this case may aid the patient management in the future.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 155 | views: 269 | pages: 518-523

    Cestodes are important parasites that can affect the health of humans and wildlife. Among these, the genus Passerilepis is an important endoparasite of Passeriform birds while poorly studied in Iran. During a parasitological field survey in central parts of Iran in 2018, thirty-two cestodes, as an obstructive intertwined mass, recovered from the intestine of a recently dead Parus major (great tit). Morphological characteristics of recovered cestodes were drawn carefully by a camera lucida equipped microscope and identification was carried out using standard keys. All of the collected cestodes were identified as P. parina. In the current study, we recorded P. parina from great tit for the first time in Iran.