2022 Impact Factor: 0.9
2022 CiteScore: 1.9
Gholamhossein Edrissian, Pharm. D.
Vol 9 No 3 (2014)
Background: Cytokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of immune responses in remission and/or relapsing of leishmaniasis. Therefore, immunotherapy for the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) has represented a principle approach in control of the infection. The present research aimed to evaluating the immunotherapeutic potential of a novel herbal immunomodulator drug (IMOD) on CVL.
Methods: Twelve mongrel dogs were intravenously infected with Iranian strain of L. infantum and randomly divided into three groups; 1: negative control (non-infected), 2: immunotherapy with IMOD and 3: positive control (non-treated). Cell proliferation and Th1-/Th2-type cytokines were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) by cell proliferation kit I (MTT) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays, respectively.
Results : At the 60 days follow-up assessment, no adverse effects were observed in treated interventional group. Cellular proliferation assay indicated that PBMCs of IMOD group had higher stimulation index (SI) than positive control group (p <0.05). Enhancement of CD4+ T cells such as IL-2, IL-4 & IL-10 were detected in negative control group due to in vitro IMOD stimulation 30 days post-treatment. In accordance to decreasing trends of Th1 & Th2 cytokines in positive control group, the mean number of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 spot forming cells (SFCs) down regulated for IMOD group during the study.
Conclusion: These data indicate that IMOD had immunomodulatory potential but is not sufficient for total parasitic cure due to balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines. This is a preliminary study and we propose to undertake a series of experiments to evaluate the CVL due to in vitro modulatory effects of IMOD.
Background: No data is available on morphology and genetic characteristics of Echinococcus granulosus derived from donkeys of Iran, despite of its existence in donkeys.In the present study morphometric variations of the rostellar hooks of protoscoleces and genotype characteristics of hydatid cyst of donkey from Iran were determined.
Methods: Protoscoleces prepared from hydatid cyst of donkey of Iran were morphometric and genetic analyzed. The genetic analysis was done using Cox 1 gene by comparative sequence analysis.
Results: Our morphometric results showed that donkey of Iran shares 6 out of 7 determined parameters with donkeys of Jordan and 4 out of 7 with 4 available data with Switzerland donkeys. Morphological similarities and dissimilarities were observed with sheep-dog (G1) and camel-dog strains (G6) of Iran. The nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the partial sequence of Cox 1 from donkey had 91% homology with query coverage of 99% to the corresponding sequence of E.equinus, 90% homology to the E. felidis, 90% homology to E. ortleppi, 89% homology to the E. shiquinus, 89% homology to the E. vogeli, 89% homology to the E. oligarthrus, 88% homology to the E. canadensis and 83% homology to the Taenia solium.Additionally, the amino acid sequence of this gene has also some differences between this strain and all known strains of E. granulosus even with E. equinus (G4).
Conclusion: Despite of common morphological characteristics of Iranian donkey hydatid cyst with those of donkeys of other parts of the world, genetically it has its.
Background: Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist shifts the immune response toward a Th1 profile. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the mixture of NTX and alum, as a new adjuvant, to enhance immune response and induce protection against Leishmania major in a mouse model.
Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized three times either autoclaved L.major promastigotes’ antigens alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naltrexone or the alum–naltrexone mixture. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed two weeks after the last immunization and compared with control mice.
Results: The administration of alum- NTX in combination with the parasite antigen, significantly increased production of IFN-γ, IFN-γ /IL-5 ratio,lymphocyte proliferation and improved DTH response against L. major.There was no significant difference in survival following challenge among groups.
Conclusion: Immunization with the alum– naltrexone mixture as an adjuvant,in combination with the autoclaved L. major promastigotes antigens,can enhance cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.
Background: The phylogenetic location of Chinese Spirometra sparganum isolates remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the phylogenetic location of the Spirometra sparganum isolates from China.
Methods: The 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1 sequences of 14 Spirometra sparganum isolates collected from thirteen locations in China were analyzed by using Neighbor-Joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI),respectively. To investigate the deep variance of 28S rDNA D1 region among included species, the secondary structure of 28S rDNA D1 region was also calculated using the program RNA structure.
Results: The genus Spirometra as a monophyletic group was evidenced by two inference methods (MP and BI). All sequences within the genus Spirometra had a bulge of a cytosine residue (Bulge C) in the stem 13 of the secondary structure model of 28S rRNA D1 region. Varietal sites in sequences from all thirteen Chinese isolates were appeared in loops. In loops, adenine was the most abundant base(averagely 41.9%) followed by guanine (averagely 30.0%), and cytosine (averagely 15.1%). In stems, the average percentage of G + C (58.3%) was higher than the percentage of A + T (41.7%).
Conclusion: The „Bulge C‟ in the stem 13 of the 28S rDNA D1 secondary structure could be as a suitable mark to identify the Spirometra species
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is the agent of urogenital tract infection that causes human trichomoniasis with some serious health complications. More understanding about genetic features of the parasite can be helpful in the study of the pathogenesis, drug susceptibility and epidemiology of the infection. For this end,we conducted analysis of the actin gene of T. vaginalis by applying the PCR-SSCP(PCR-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism) and nucleotide sequencingmethod.
Methods: Fifty T. vaginalis samples were collected from 950 women attending gynecology clinics in two cities of Iran, Hamadan and Tehran, from November 2010 to July 2011. After axenisation of isolates, all samples subjected to PCR-SSCP and nucleotide sequencing.
Results: According to the SSCP banding patterns and nucleotide sequencing, seven sequence types were detected among the isolates. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences showed five polymorphic sites in the different strain types. Amino acid substitution was not observed in the nucleotide sequence translation of the all sequences.
Conclusion: The actin gene analysis represents genetic diversity of T. vaginalis and it suggests that various strains can be responsible for clinically different trichomoniasis in infected individuals. It is expected that further studies will be conductedto increase our knowledge about relationship between the actin gene polymorphism and different biological behavior of the parasite.
Background: The differentiation between acute and latent forms of the Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection is still considered as a complicated issue. This study was aimed to elucidate the status of infection in the blood donors and the probable importance of blood transfusion in the transmission of the infection through detecting both immunological and genetic markers of acute and latent infection.
Methods: Totally 235 blood samples from blood donors were collected. The levels of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were examined by specific ELISA kits. cDNA were synthesized from total extracted mRNA molecules from the serum samples and SAG1 gene, specific for tachyzoite form, were amplified using Real-Time PCR technique.Demographic information of study subjects including their gender, age, job,and habitat were recorded.
Results: Out of 235 serum samples, 80 (34.04%) and 4 (1.71%) were positive regarding anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Real-Time PCR results showed that 14 out of 200 (6.97%) of blood donor had mRNA molecules of SAG1 gene. The positive results of Real-Time PCR of SAG1 in female gender and housekeepers were significantly higher than those of male gender and other job categories.
Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic and acute infection is high in Iranian blood donors. Additionally, evaluation of antibodies could not be reliable, because several donors negative for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies had detectable SAG1 mRNA molecules.Hence, it seems that molecular diagnostic tests are essential to detect acute infections.
Background: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic disease with a high mortality rate, caused by a diphasic protozoan parasite, Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of CVL in the city and suburbs of Kerman, using a range of serological, histopathological and molecular methods.
Methods: Blood samples were taken from 80 clinically symptomatic stray dogs All the collected blood samples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT) to detect the anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs, using a cut-off value of ≥1:320. Pathological specimens including spleen, liver and lymph nodes were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning,staining and final microscopic examination in the pathology laboratory.PCR amplification of kDNA from 9 samples of DAT positive stray dogs was studied.
Results: The anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in 9 dogs (11.25 %) of the total 80 studied dogs. No significant difference was found between VL infection and gender. In contrast, there was a significant difference between seropositivity and age (P<0.05). Pathological samples showed changes including hyperplasia of infected macrophages and inflammatory cells that occupied sinusoids and splenic cords. Among the samples which was characterized by PCR, only one specimen revealed to be mixed infection between L. infantum and L. tropica.
Conclusion: The results revealed a high prevalence of L. infantum infection in stray dogs in Kerman. This kind of information is needed for implementation of future control programs.
Background: Accurate identification of sheep nematodes is a critical point in epidemiological studies and monitoring of drug resistance in flocks. However, due to a close morphological similarity between the eggs and larval stages of many of these nematodes,such identification is not a trivial task. There are a number of studies showing that molecular targets in ribosomal DNA (Internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and Intergenic spacer) are suitable for accurate identification of sheep bursate nematodes. The objective of present study was to compare the ITS1, ITS2 and IGS regions of Iranian common bursate nematodes in order to choose best target for specific identification methods.
Methods: The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1and ITS2) and intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 5 common Iranian bursate nematodes of sheep were sequenced. The sequences of some non–Iranian isolates were used for comparison in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different nematode populations.
Results: Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of Iranian nematodes showed greatest similarity among Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia marshalli of 94% and 88%, respectively. While Trichostrongylus colubriformis and M. marshalli showed the highest homology (99%) in the IGS sequences. Comparison of the spacer sequences of Iranian with non-Iranian isolates showed significantly higher variation in Haemonchus contortus compared to the other species.
Conclusion: Both the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences are convenient targets to have species-specific identification of Iranian bursate nematodes. On the other hand the IGS region may be a less suitable molecular target.
Background: Fasciolosis in livestock is a crucial concern in the globe, mainly due to its impact on human health. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of infection with Fasciola gigantica (Cobbold, 1855) larvae in the field-collected snails of Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1785) from northwestern Iran using a molecular approach.
Methods: A total of 6,759 pond snails were collected from 28 freshwater bodies in West Azarbaijan. PCR was performed to amplify a 618-bp fragment of the nuclear 28 SrRNA gene of Fasciola. The PCR products were digested by AvaII restriction enzyme to create restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns specific for the detection of F. gigantica.
Results: Of the total collected snails 496 (7.34 %) were L. auricularia, among which 4.64% (23 out of 496) were infected with a Fasciola species according to the PCR analysis. Only 2.22% (11 out of 496) of the infected snails were from the mountainous areas. The highest Fasciola infection rate recorded in the snails of a single site was 1.81% (9 out of 496 snails). Based on the RFLP pattern, F. gigantica accounted for 2.42% of the infection rates in the study sites.
Conclusion: Application of PCR-RFLP was proven to be a useful approach for valid and robust detection of the infection with F. gigantica in its intermediate host snails. These findings may therefore be applicable for establishment of the controlprograms against dissemination of the infection in different regions.
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an annoying and disfiguring disease affecting around 1,500,000 individuals globally. There are endemic pockets of this disease in Taif region. In some patients, lesion often weeps and leads to scar formation. The study was conducted to see the efficacy of fluconazole and itraconazole in the patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the effect of these drugs on liver enzymes and kidney markers.
Methods: Positivity of Leishmania was recorded by microscopic examinations of smears. Specific diagnosis for Leishmania major and L. tropica was made with the help of nested polymerase chain reaction. Fluconazole was given at the rate of 200mg/day while itraconazole was given at 150mg/day for six weeks. AST, ALT, creatinine and urea were estimated during medication.
Results: Leishmania major and L. tropica were the species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Taif region. 81% patients had single lesions, mostly on face followed by hands and legs. 15% of the lesions had bacterial contamination.In terms of efficacy, fluconazole gave slightly better results compared to itraconazole. After 6 weeks of medications, slightly elevated values were recorded for liver enzymes and creatinine.
Conclusion: Transmission of leishmaniasis in Taif region is probably because of poor coverage of residual insecticides spraying at hiding places in pile-ups of rocks and abandoned houses from where sand flies visit nearby houses and cattle sheds during night. Fluconazole and itraconazole may be used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with good recovery rate and fewer side effects.
Background:The study was targeted to report the appearance of coproantigens in feces and circulating antibodies in the serum of Fasciola gigantica experimentally infected rabbits.
Copro Hyper Immune Serum (HIS) and Excretory-Secretory Hyper Immune Serum (ES HIS) antigens were used in a sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica antigens in feces of 12 rabbits experimentally infected with different doses of F. gigantica encysted metacercariae (EMC) (10, 25 and 30 EMC). The relation between time of appearance of coproantigens in feces and anti-Fasciola antibodies in serum was evaluated.
The earliest diagnostic coproantigen was recorded at 21st, 25th and 28th day post-infection (p.i.) in groups of rabbits infected with 30, 25 and 10 F. gigantica EMC respectively. Both HIS and ES HIS were able to detect coproantigens in feces of rabbits infected with 30 EMC at day 21 p.i. The appearance of F. gigantica coproantigens in feces of infected rabbits was concurrent to the appearance of anti-Fasciola antibodies in blood (3rd week p.i.).However, coproantigen has specific ability for direct assessment of active infection with minimal cross-reaction with other heterologous parasitic infections.
The findings hold promise for a more accurate diagnostic technique in the near future for suspected Fasciola infection.
Background: In this study, the pilot production of aerobic bioreactor tropical theileriosis vaccine was optimized with the aim of immunological assays for further mass production.
Methods: We have shown earlier the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay could be used for evaluating the immunity and memory cells against specific Theileria antigen in vaccinated animals. In addition, TNF-α is the principle cytokine in modulating the cytotoxic activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Immunological analysis of the vaccine was performed by using two cell mediated immunity(CMI) in vitro and in vivo DTH test (Theilerin) and TNF-α assay.
Results: The results of immune responses of susceptible immunized cattle by bioreactor vaccine in comparison with conventional flask vaccine revealed a significant stimulation of immune cells by transcription of high level of TNF-α and positive reaction against Theileria antigen in Theilerin skin test (DTH).
Conclusion: The equal immunological results achieved in both above mentioned vaccines verified the satisfactory immunity for aerobic bioreactor theileriosis vaccine for advance mass vaccination in the field on a large scale
Background: The aim of the study was to provide a point of reference to study the Neospora caninum infections in China.
Methods: Genome DNA was extracted from the brains of aborted fetuses and specific PCR was performed with N. caninum Nc5-targeted specific primers. Fetal bovine brain tissues were homogenized and continuously cultured in Vero cells with double antibodies. The medium was replaced at 2-d intervals and the state of cells was observed.
Results: A 608 bp Nc5 gene band was detected by PCR amplification. After sequencing,the sequence of the sample shared 99.5% homology with GenBank(AF061249). Brain homogenates were continuously cultured in Vero cells for 34 d and N. caninum was found. The results of IFAT and Nc5 gene-based PCR detection were N. caninum-positive, and the parasite was tentatively named N. caninum China Yanbian strain. BABL/c mice were inoculated with the separated parasites and showed clinical symptoms of ataxia and limb paralysis after 12 d. Only 3 mice survived.The blood of dying mice and the hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, kidneys, andbrains of dead mice were collected aseptically. The Nc5 gene-based PCR showed that N. caninum may exist in brains, livers, and spleen. Based on immunohistochemical observations, we showed that N. caninum tachyzoites existed in the brains and livers.
Conclusion: We have successfully isolated bovine-specific N. caninum strain from brain tissues of aborted cattle in the China Yanbian region. This isolated strain has a strong infectious ability towards BABL/c mice.
Background: One of the most important enzymatic disorders that interact with malaria is deficiency of G6PD (Gloucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). This enzyme protects red blood cells from hydrogen peroxide and other oxidative damages. Distribution of this enzyme deficiency usually accompanies with low level distribution of malaria disease in most malarious areas. So this hypothesis may be considered that the G6PD deficiency could be protective against malaria.
Methods: Totally 160 samples were taken from vivax malaria infected and non-infected individuals. Preparing blood smears and quantitative test for G6PD deficiency were employed for all of the samples. To ensure accuracy of the malaria in negative samples besides using microscopical examination,semi-nested multiplex PCR was also performed for the two groups.
Results: In microscopical examination 36 and 124 samples were vivax malaria positive and negative respectively. Out of 36 P.vivax positive cases 3 (8.3%) cases were detected to be G6PD deficient versus 30 (24.2%) cases out of 124 P. vivax negative cases. The results showed a significant differentiation between P. vivax positive and P. vivax negative cases in the rate of G6PD deficiency (3/36 in positive cases versus 30/124 in negative cases) (P<0.05).
Conclusion: vivax malaria positive individuals with G6PD deficiency showed too mild symptoms of Malaria or even asymptomatic.
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem among immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women with and out HIV infections.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consecutive 385 pregnant women attended Antenatal Clinic from May 2010 to October 2011 at the Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Venous blood was collected from each pregnant woman for testing HIV-1/2 and anti- Toxoplasma antibodies using rapid test kits. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package.
Results: The overall magnitude of T. gondii and HIV was 88.6% (341/385) and 11.2% (43/385), respectively. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was not different among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women (88.4%, 38/ 43 vs. 88.6%, 303/342). Keeping cats in house showed statistically significant association with seropositivity of toxoplasmosis (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Irrespective of HIV infection, high rate of T. gondii was detected among pregnant women. These high prevalences indicate the need for an intensified public health awareness to reduce both infections.
Background: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.
Methods: Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.
Results: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs. volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174). Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733), age (P = 0.581), ABO(P= 0.433) and rhesus blood groups (P =0.806) of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015) affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs. volunteer donors:23.4% vs. 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013) and donors of blood group O type (P =< 0.0001).
Conclusions: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.
Background: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of Leishmania parasites with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Antimonial compounds such as meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) are the first line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, according to reports of the drug resistance of parasites, the efficacy of antimonial compounds is low. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are present in all organisms and mediate the transport of vital elements through biological membranes. One of the important mechanisms of resistance in Leishmania parasites is the overexpression of ABC efflux pumps. P-glycoprotein A (pgpA) is a related gene for ABC transporter in Leishmania species. The aim of this study was to compare the pgpA expression in laboratory-induced resistant L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and sensitive parasites.
Methods: RNA extraction of promastigotes of sensitive and resistant clones was performed and total RNA was reverse transcribed. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess RNA expression profiles and the expression levels were calculated using 2-ΔCt method.
Results: The mean expression level of pgpA mRNA was 2.70 ± 0.51 in in sensitive Leishmania clone and 6.08 ± 1.50 in resistant Leishmania clone (P = 0.021).
Conclusion: The expression of pgpA gene in resistant strains of L. major was almost fivefold higher than those in susceptible strains. Therefore, this can be used in field isolates, i.e. overexpression of the gene can prove resistance in wild type field isolates.
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide spread disease. The present study examined the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among animals of ediblemeat (cattle and sheep) in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province (Southwest of Iran) in 2012. Furthermore, we attempted for the first time to identify this parasite from the meat products in the province.
Methods: The tongue, brain, femur muscle and liver of 50 sheep and 70 cattle as well as 50 samples of meat products were selected and collected to perform molecular survey using Nested-PCR method.
Results: Of the studied sheep, 38% were infected. The infection rate in the age groups under 1 year, 1-2 years, and more than 2 years was 25%, 35.29% and 52.94%, respectively. The infection rate in femur muscle, brain, liver and tongue was 28%, 32%, 30% and 16%, respectively. Of the studied cattle, 8.57% were infected. The infection rate in the age groups 1-2 years, 2-4 years, and more than 4 years was 3.7%, 9.09% and 14.28%, respectively. Sheep was infected 6 times more than cattle (OR = 6.53 CI = 2.374-18.005).The infection rate among samples of meat products was 12% (6 samples out of 50 samples).
Conclusion: Due to the high rate of this parasitic infection among the slaughtered animals as well as meat products in this region, the use of infected material can be one of the main risk factors of transmission of the parasite to humans.
Background: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic infections in human and animals. This study was designed for survey on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in farms of Ilam, west of Iran, using parasitology method and genotyping by Nested PCR-RFLP.
Methods: Fecal samples of 217 cattle were collected fresh and directly from the rectum of cattle. All of the samples were examined by microscopic observation after staining with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN). Genomic DNA extracted by using EURx DNA kit. A Nested PCR-RFLP protocol amplifying 825 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene conducted to differentiate species and genotyping of the isolates using SspI and VspI as restriction enzymes.
Results: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle using both methods is 3.68%. Most of the positive cattle were calves under six months. Species diagnosis carried out by digesting the secondary PCR product with SspI that C. parvum generated 3 visible bands of 448, 247 and 106 bp and digested by VspI restriction enzyme generated 2 visible bands of 628 and 104bp. In this investigation all of the positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum.
Conclusion: C. parvum (bovine genotype) detected in all positive cattle samples in Ilam, west of Iran. The results of the present study can help for public health care systems to prevention and management of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and the assessment of cattle cryptosporidiosis as a reservoir for the human infection.
Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.