Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Pregnant Women Attending in Northwest Ethiopia
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem among immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women with and out HIV infections.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consecutive 385 pregnant women attended Antenatal Clinic from May 2010 to October 2011 at the Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Venous blood was collected from each pregnant woman for testing HIV-1/2 and anti- Toxoplasma antibodies using rapid test kits. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package.
Results: The overall magnitude of T. gondii and HIV was 88.6% (341/385) and 11.2% (43/385), respectively. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was not different among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women (88.4%, 38/ 43 vs. 88.6%, 303/342). Keeping cats in house showed statistically significant association with seropositivity of toxoplasmosis (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Irrespective of HIV infection, high rate of T. gondii was detected among pregnant women. These high prevalences indicate the need for an intensified public health awareness to reduce both infections.
Dubey JP. The history of Toxoplasma gondii-the first 100 years. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008; 55:467-475.
Motoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004;363:1965-1974.
Weinman D, Chandler AH. Toxoplasmosis in swine and rodents; reciprocal oral infection and potential human hazard. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, N.Y.). 1954;87:211-216.
Wolf A, Cowen D, Paige B. Human toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in infants as encep-halomyelitis verification by transmission to animals. Science (New York, N.Y.). 1939; 89:226-227.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part i. UK: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Luft BJ, Remington JS. Toxoplasmic encephalitis in aids. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;5:211-222.
Porter SB, Sande MA. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1643-1648.
Shimelis T, Tebeje M, Tadesse E, Tegbaru B, Terefe A. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIVuninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia:A comparative cross-sectional study. BMC Research Notes. 2009;2:213.
Hatam GR, Shamseddin A, Nikouee F. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high school girls in Fasa district, Iran. Iranian J Immunol. 2005;2:177-181.
Jones J, Lopez A, Wilson M. Congenital toxoplasmosis. Am Fam Phys. 2003;67:2131-2138.
Dubey JP, Tiao N, Gebreyes WA, Jones JL. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1935-1938.
Gebremedhin EZ, Abebe AH, Tessema TS, Tullu KD, Medhin G, Vitale M, Di Marco V, Cox E, Dorny P. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:101.
Teshale S, Dumetre A, Darde ML, Merga B, Dorchies P. Serological survey of caprine toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: Prevalence and risk factors. Parasite (Paris, France). 2007;14:155-159.
Zemene E, Yewhalaw D, Abera S, Belay T, Samuel A, Zeynudin A. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:337.
Zewdu E, Agonafir A, Tessema TS, Tilahun G, Medhin G, Vitale M, Di Marco V, Cox E, Vercruysse J, Dorny P. Seroepidemiological study of caprine toxoplasmosis in east and west Shewa zones, Oromia regional state, central Ethiopia. Res Vet Sci. 2013;94:43-48.
Walle F, Kebede N, Tsegaye A, Kassa T. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis in HIV infected and non-infected individuals in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:15.
Mosti M, Pinto B, Giromella A, Fabiani S, Cristofani R, Panichi M, Bruschi F. A 4-year evaluation of toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in the general population and in women of reproductive age in central Italy. Epidemiol Infect. 2012:1-4.
Evengard B, Petersson K, Engman ML, Wiklund S, Ivarsson SA, Tear-Fahnehjelm K, Forsgren M, Gilbert R, Malm G. Low incidence of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy and in newborns in Sweden. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;127:121-127.
Song KJ, Shin JC, Shin HJ, Nam HW. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Korean pregnant women. Korean J Parasitol. 2005;43:69-71.
Elnahas A, Gerais AS, Elbashir MI, Eldien ES, Adam I. Toxoplasmosis in pregnant Sudanese women. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:868-870.
Negash T, Tilahun G, Medhin G. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Nazaret town, Ethiopia. East Afr J Public Health. 2008;5:211-213.
Kolbekova P, Kourbatova E, Novotna M, Kodym P, Flegr J. New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: Prospective cross-sectional study among military personnel in the Czech republic. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:1012-1017.
Zufferey J, Sugar A, Rudaz P, Bille J, Glauser MP, Chave JP. Prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and serological diagnosis of active infection in HIV-positive patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993;12:591-595.
Candolfi E, Partisani ML, De Mautort E, Bethencourt S, Frantz M, Kien T, Lang JM. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in 346 HIV infected patients in the east of France. Serological follow-up study in patients not infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Presse Med. 1992;21:394-395.
Galvan Ramirez ML, Valdez Alvarado V, Vargas Gutierrez G, Jimenez Gonzalez O, Garcia Cosio C, Vielma Sandoval M. Prevalence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in patients with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1997;30:465-467.
Raffi F, Aboulker JP, Michelet C, Reliquet V, Pelloux H, Huart A, Poizot-Martin I, Morlat P, Dupas B, Mussini JM, Leport C. A prospective study of criteria for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in 186 aids patients. The biotoxo study group. AIDS. 1997;11:177-184.
Zumla A, Savva D, Wheeler RB, Hira SK, Luo NP, Kaleebu P, Sempala SK, Johnson JD, Holliman R. Toxoplasma serology in Zambian and Ugandan patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85:227-229.
Wanachiwanawin D, Sutthent R, Chokephaibulkit K, Mahakittikun V, Ongrotchanakun J, Monkong N. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in HIV and non-HIV infected Thai pregnant women. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2001;19:291-293.
Meisheri YV, Mehta S, Patel U. A prospective study of seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in general population, and in HIV/aids patients in Bombay, India. J Postgrad Med. 1997;43:93-97.
Hung CC, Chen MY, Hsieh SM, Hsiao CF, Sheng WH, Chang SC. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and incidence of Toxoplasma encephalitis in non-haemophiliac HIV- 1-infected adults in Taiwan. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:302-306.
Nissapatorn V, Lee CK, Khairul AA. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among aids patients in hospital Kualalumpur, 2001. Singapore Med J. 2003;44:194-196.
Mohraz M, Mehrkhani F, Jam S, SeyedAlinaghi S, Sabzvari D, Fattahi F, Jabbari H, Hajiabdolbaghi M. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV(+)/aids patients in Iran. Acta Med Iran. 2011;49:213-218.
Mahin Jamshidi Makiani, Parivash Davoodian et al. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in the first trimester among pregnant women. Int Elec J Med. 2012;1:12-17.
F Hajsoleimani, A Ataeian, AA Nourian, S Mazloomzadeh. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and bioassay of IgM positive cases in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7:82-86.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.