Molecular and Parasitological Study of Cryptosporidium Isolates From Cattle in Ilam, West of Iran
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide spread disease. The present study examined the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among animals of ediblemeat (cattle and sheep) in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province (Southwest of Iran) in 2012. Furthermore, we attempted for the first time to identify this parasite from the meat products in the province.
Methods: The tongue, brain, femur muscle and liver of 50 sheep and 70 cattle as well as 50 samples of meat products were selected and collected to perform molecular survey using Nested-PCR method.
Results: Of the studied sheep, 38% were infected. The infection rate in the age groups under 1 year, 1-2 years, and more than 2 years was 25%, 35.29% and 52.94%, respectively. The infection rate in femur muscle, brain, liver and tongue was 28%, 32%, 30% and 16%, respectively. Of the studied cattle, 8.57% were infected. The infection rate in the age groups 1-2 years, 2-4 years, and more than 4 years was 3.7%, 9.09% and 14.28%, respectively. Sheep was infected 6 times more than cattle (OR = 6.53 CI = 2.374-18.005).The infection rate among samples of meat products was 12% (6 samples out of 50 samples).
Conclusion: Due to the high rate of this parasitic infection among the slaughtered animals as well as meat products in this region, the use of infected material can be one of the main risk factors of transmission of the parasite to humans.
Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis - a waterborne zoonosis. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 126: 57-72.
Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans. 2 nd edition, CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL, USA; 2010.
Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. Medical Parasitology. 8th Edition, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1999; 161-171.
Baril L, Ancelle T, Goulet V, Thulliez Ph, Tirard-Fleury V, Carme B. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy: a case control study in France. Scandinavian J Infect Dis.1999; 31: 305–309.
Dubey JP, Beattie CP. Toxoplasmosis of animal and man. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1988; 1-220.
Bahia O, Jones J, Alves CC, Azevedo-Silve J, Alves C, Orefice F, Addiss D. Highly endemic water borne toxoplasmosis in north Riodejaneiro state. Emerg Infect Dis J. 2003; 9(1): 55-62.
Lunden A, Uggla A. Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii in mutton following curing smoking, freezing or microwave cooking. Int J Food Microbiol. 1992; (15): 357-360.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16thEdition, McGraw-Hill, Med Publish Div. 2005; 1243-1248.
Asmar M, Amirkhani A, Piazak N, Hovanesian A, Kooloobandi A, Estessami R. Toxoplasmosis in Iran, Results of a seroepidemiological study. Bull Exotic Pathol Soc. 1997; 90(1): 19-21.
Extramiana AB, Gonzalez L, Cortabarria N, Garcia M, Juste RA. Evaluation of PCR technique for the detection of Maedi-Visnaproviral DNA in blood, milk and tissue samples of naturally infected sheep. Small Ruminant Research. 2002; 44: 109-118.
Khan A, Su C, German M, Storch GA, Clifford DB, Sibley LD. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from immunocompromised patients reveals high prevalence of type I strains. J Clin Microbiol.2005; 43: 5881–5887.
Truppel JH, Reifur L, Montiani-Ferreira F, Lange RR, Vilani RG, Gennari SM, Thomaz- Soccol V. Toxoplasma gondii in Capybara antibodies and DNA detected by IFAT and PCR. Parasit J. 2010; 107:141-146.
Santos SL, DeSouza K, Queiroz L, Anares Da Silva, MS, Uzeda RS, Abe-Sandes K, Gondim LF. Investigation of Neospora caninum, Hammondia spand Toxoplasma gondii in tissues from slaughtered beef cattle in Bahia, Brazil. Parasit Res. 2010; 106: 457-461.
Asgari Q, Sarnevesht J, Kalantari M, Adnani Sadat J, Motazedian MH, Sarkari B. Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, Southern Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011; 43(2): 389-395.
Bonyadian M, Hematzade F, Manuchehri K. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep in center of Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007; 10(18): 322- 323.
Hashemi R. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle, sheep and goats in Iran. Vet Parasitol. 1996; 61(2): 1-3.
Elbez-Rubinstein A, Ajzenberg D, Dardé ML et al. Congenital toxoplasmosis and reinfection during pregnancy: case report, strain characterization, experimental model of reinfection, and review. J Infect Dis. 2009; 15, 280–5.
Asgari Q, Mehrabani D, Moazeni M. The seroprevalence of bovine Toxoplasma is Fars province, Iran. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 2010b; 5(3): 210-216.
Berger AE, Herrmann DC, Schares G, Muller N, Bernet D, Gottsteir B, Frey CF. Prevalence and genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii in feline faeces (oocysts) and meat from sheep, cattle and pigs in Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2011; 177: 290–297
Ergin S, Ciftcioglo G, Midilli K, lassa G, Gargili A. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii from meat and meat product the Nested PCR method and ITS relationship with seroprevalence in slaughtered animals. Bull Vet Institute Pulawy. 2009; 53: 657-661.
Mendonca O, Domingues P, Langoni H. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in swine sausages. Parasitologia Latino Americana. 2005; 60: 65-68.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.