Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria
Background: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.
Methods: Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.
Results: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs. volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174). Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733), age (P = 0.581), ABO(P= 0.433) and rhesus blood groups (P =0.806) of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015) affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs. volunteer donors:23.4% vs. 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013) and donors of blood group O type (P =< 0.0001).
Conclusions: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.
World Health Organization. World Malaria Report. Geneva: WHO Press; 2012. Available from: http//www.who.int/malaria/publication/worl d_malaria_report_2012/report/en/index.html.
George IO, Jeremiah I, Kasso T. Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Br J Med Res. 2013; 3(2): 398-406
Ogbu O, Uneke CU. Hepatitis B virus and blood transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2008: 7:2.
World Health Organization.Global database on blood safety: summary report. Geneva 2001: WHO Press; Available from: http//www. who.int/bloodsafety/GDBS_Reort_2001-2002.pdf.
Tagny TC, Mbanya D, Tapko J, Lefre`reJ. Blood safety in sub-Saharan Africa: amulti- factorial problem. Transfus. 2008; 48(6):1256-61.
Awusi - ofori AK, Parry C, Bates I. Trans fusiontransmitted malaria in countries where malariais endemic: A review of the literatures from sub – Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis.2010; 51(10):1192-8.
Kabiru EW, Kaviti JN. Risk of transfusion malaria in Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1987; 64(12):825-7.
Saeed AA, Al Rasheed AM, Al Nasser I, Al Onaizi M, Al Kahtani S, Dubois L. Malaria screening of blood donors in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2007; 22(5-6):329-32.
Tagny TC, Lobe MM, Mbanya D.Évaluation de deuxméthodes de dosage de l'hémoglobine chez des donneurs de sang camerounais. Transfusion Clinique EtBiologiqu. 2006; 13: 331–4.
Rajab JA, Muchina WP, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Blood donor hematology parameters in two regions of Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005;82: 123–7.
Adediran IA, Fesogun RB, Oyekunle AA. Haematological parameters in prospective Nigerian blood donors rejected on account of anemia and/or microfilaria infestation. Nigerian J Med. 2005; 14: 45–50.
Abodunrin OL, Bamidele JO, Olugbenga-Bello AI, Parakoy DB. Preferred choice of health facilities for health care among Adult Residents in Ilorin Metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria. Int J Health Res. 2010; 3(2): 79-86.
World Health Organization. Blood donor selection: Guidelines on assessing donor suitability for blood donation, Geneva 2012; WHO Press: Available from http: //www. int/bloodsafety/publication/guide_selection- _assessing_suitability.pdf.
Enosolease ME, Bazuaye GN. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion. Asian J Transfus Sci. 2008; 2(1): 3–5.
Omoregie R, Adedokun RB, Ogefere HO, Iduh P, Duru M. Comparison of the efficiency ofmalaria PF rapid test device, Giemsa –stained thick film and QBC in the diagnosis of malaria in Benin City. Nigeria. Mary Slessor J Med. 2007; 7:1-4.
World Health Organization. Blood Donor Selection: Guideline on assessing donor suitability for blood donation. Geneva: WHO Press:2012. Available from: http // www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/76724.
Uneka CJ, Ogbu O, Nwojiji V. Potential risk of induced malaria by blood transfusion in south eastern Nigeria. Mcgill J Med. 2006; 9(1): 8-13.
Ekwunife CA, Ozumba NA, Eneanya CI, Nwaorgu OC. Malaria infection among blood donors in Onitsha urban, Southeast Nigeria. Sierra Leone J Biomed Res. 2011; 3(1):21-6.
Okocha EC, Ibeh CC, Ele PU, Ibeh NC. The Prevalence of malaria in blood donors in Nigerian Teaching Hospital. J Vector Borne Dis. 2005; 42:21-4.
Mbanugo JI, Emenalo S. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors inOwerri, ImoState, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2004; 25: 75-80.
Alli JA, Okonko IO, Abraham AO, Kolade AF, Ogunjobi PN, Salako AO, Ojezele MO, Nwanze JC. A sero-survey of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Microfilaria, HIV, HBsAG, HCV antibodies) in prospective Nigerian blood donors. Res J Med Sci. 2010; 4 (4): 255-75.
Laishram DD, Sutton PL, Nanda N, Sharma VL, Sobti RC, Carlton JM , Joshi H. The complexities of malaria disease manifestations with a focus on asymptomatic malaria. Malaria J. 2012;11:29.
Alves FP, Gil LH, Marrelli MT, Ribolla PE, Camargo EP, Da Silva LH. Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium sp. as infection source for malaria vector mosquitoesin the Brazilian Amazon. J Med Entomol. 2005; 42:777-9.
Onyenekwe CC, Ukibe N, Meludu SC, Ifeanyi M, Ezeani M, Onochie A, Ofiaeli N, Aboh N, IIikaA. Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV coinfectioninAnambra state, Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2008; 45: 151–6.
Falade CO, Nash O, Akingbola TS, Michael OS, Olojede F, Ademowo OG. Blood bankingin a malaria-endemic area: evaluating the problem posed by malarial parasitaemias. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009; 103:383-92.
Gbotosho GO, Happi CT, Ganiyu A, Ogundahunsi OA, Sowunmi A, Oduola AM. Potential contribution of prescription practices to the emergence and spread of chloroquineresistance in south-west Nigeria: caution in the use of artemisinin combination therapy. Malaria J. 2009; 8:313.
World Health Organization. Global Database on blood safety. Summary Report. Geneva: WHO press: 2011. Available from: http//www.who.int/bloodsafety/global_database/ GDBS_Summary_Report_2011.pdf.
Eastlund T. Monetary blood donation incentives and the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Transfus. 1998; 38: 874–82.
Glynn SA, Smith JW, Schreiber GB, KleinmanSH, Nass CC, Bethel J, Biswan B, Thomson RA, Williams AE, Retrovirus Epidemiology donor study. Repeat whole-blood and plateletpheresis donors: Unreported deferrable risks, reactive screening tests, and response to incentive programs. Transfus. 2001; 41:736–43.
Diro E, Alemu S, Yohannes GA. Blood safety and prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infections among donors at the Red Cross Blood bank Gondar University Hospital. Ethiop Med J. 2008; 46: 7-13.
Kasraian L, MaghsudluM. Blood donors’ attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate. Blood Transfus. 2012; 10(2): 186–90.
Agboola TF, Ajayi MB, Adeleke MA, Gyang PV. Prevalence of malaria parasite amongblood donors in Lagos University teaching hospital, Lagos Nigeria. Ann Biol Res. 2010; 1 (3):72-5.
Epidi TT, Nwani CD, Ugorji NP. Prevalence of malaria in blood donors in Abakaliki Metropolis, Nigeria. Sci Res Essay. 2008; 3 (4):162- 4.
World Health Organization. African Malaria Report. Geneva: WHO Press: 2003. Available
Rowe JA, Opi DH, Williams TN. Blood groups and malaria: fresh insights into pathogenesis and identification of targets for intervention. Curr Opin Hematol. 2009; 1 (6): 480–7.
Vafa M, Troye-Blomberg M, Anchang J, Garcia A, Migot Nabias F.Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic children in Senegal: relation to transmission, ge and erythrocyte variants. Malaria J. 2008; 7:17.
Jeremiah ZA, Koate BB. Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Blood Transfus. 2010; 8:113-7.
Oladeinde BH, Omoregie R, Olley M, Anunibe JA, Onifade AA, Oladeinde OB. Malaria and anaemia among children in a low resource setting in Nigeria. Iran J Parasitol. 2012; 7(3):31-7.
Nwogoh B, Awodu OA, Bazuaye GN. Blood donation in Nigeria: Standard of the donated Blood. J Lab Physicians. 2012; 4: 94-7.
Buciuniene L,StonienëL, Blazeviciene A, Kazlauskaite R, Skudiene V. Blood donors' motivation and attitude to non remunerated blood donation in Lithuania. BMC Public Health.2006; 6:166.
Abdullah SM. The effect of repeated blood donations on the iron status of male Saudi blood donors. Blood Transfus. 2011; 9(2): 167–71.
Pratima V , Shraddha S , Ashutosh K , Archna G , Ahilesh K. Prevalence of Anemia in adults with respect to Socio-Demographic status, Blood groups and religion in North Indian population. Int J Biol Med Res. 2012; 3(4): 2441-7.
Erhabor O, Adias TC. The challenges of meeting the blood transfusion requirements in Sub- Saharan Africa: the need for the development of alternatives to allogenic blood. J Blood Med. 2011;2: 7–21
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.