Vol 15 No 2 (2020)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 343 | views: 382 | pages: 158-167

    Background: Soil is one of the environmental sources of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. The other hand, genotype of the parasite is one of the important factors for its pathogenicity. Due to the importance of toxoplasmosis on public health, this study aimed to isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in environmental soil samples of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran.

    Methods: Overall, 192 soil samples were collected from different areas in Mazandaran Province from Apr to Sep 2014. The flotation method was used for recovering oocysts. Then, soil samples were investigated for DNA detection of T. gondii using nested PCR of RE gene, genotyping with Semi-nested PCR of GRA6 gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. A significant difference was considered with a P<0.05.

    Results: From 192 soil samples, T. gondii DNA was detected in 150 samples (78.1%). Then genotype of 23 samples was determined (91.3% type I and 8.7% type II).

    Conclusion: Prevalence of T. gondii in soil samples of Mazandaran province, north of Iran is high and T. gondii GRA6 type I is predominant. Soil can be the most important source of severe toxoplasmosis in this province.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 188 | views: 316 | pages: 168-176

    Background: In recent decades platyhelminths have been used as model organisms to address some of the fundamental questions related to the growth and development of animal organisms. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) have a regulatory role in the growth and development of Echinococcus species. This study determined the effect of alpha-tocopherol on the expression of EGFR and TGF-beta genes in three in vitro developmental stages of E. granulosus.

    Methods: E. granulosus protoscoleces were cultured in diphasic medium containing bovine serum and CMRL 1066. Three developmental stages of E. granulosus, i.e. invaginated protoscoleces, evaginated protoscoleces and three-proglottid worms, were treated by alpha-tocopherol (250 μg/ml for 36 h) and the expression of EGFR and TGF-beta genes were evaluated by using qPCR analysis.

    Results: Intact protoscoleces were successfully developed to the segmented worms in diphasic culture media. Higher levels of both EGFR and TGF-beta gene expression were observed in the invaginated protoscoleces as well as the segmented worms in comparison to the non-treated controls.

    Conclusion: Administration of alpha-tocopherol to different developmental stages of E. granulosus significantly enhanced EGFR and TGF-beta expression in the parasite. Both oxidant and non-oxidant activities of alpha-tocopherol could explain the study findings. Overexpression of the genes could in turn enhance growth factor effects and facilitates the viability of the parasite.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 182 | views: 448 | pages: 177-186

    Background: Malaria is threatening more than half of Afghanistan population. Asymptomatic malaria is notable problem against malaria controlling strategies. In this study we evaluated the asymptomatic malaria status in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan in 2017.

    Methods: Overall, 296 finger blood samples were taken on DNA Banking Cards and microscopic slides from asymptomatic individuals in Jalalabad city. We used a novel post real time PCR high resolution melting analysis beside microscopy and semi-nested multiplex PCR to evaluate status of asymptomatic malaria in this city.

    Results: The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in Jalalabad city was determined 1.7% (5/296), 7.43% (22/296) and 7.78% (26/296) by microscopy, Seminested multiplex PCR and qRT-PCR-HRM, respectively. Out of 26 positive cases were detected by qRT-PCR-HRM, 21, 1 and 4 cases were detected P. falciparum, P. vivax and mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively.

    Conclusion: Our data indicating on existence of significant number of asymptomatic reservoirs that assists in prolonged endemicity of the disease. On the other hand, the molecular methods are better alternatives for microscopy especially for monitoring of asymptomatic cases of malaria.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 183 | views: 465 | pages: 187-195

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that belongs to the family Coccidae. We aimed to evaluate IgG avidity and the changes of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulins M (IgM) and G (IgG) in patients with acute leukemia and lymphoma.

    Methods: Ninety eight patients with Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma, selected from patients referring to Imam Reza Hospital of Tabriz (38°04′N 46°18′E), in terms of the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM, IgG, IgG avidity antibodies and the major risk factors were evaluated.

    Results: The results of pre-chemotherapy evaluation showed that of the examined patients, only two cases, one patient with ALL and another patient with lymphoma, had a positive IgM titer. Overall, 46 cases had positive IgG titers, including 20 patients with AML, 15 patients with ALL and 11 patients with lymphoma. Three (3.06%) patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM and one of them was with new infection of toxoplasmosis in lymphoma patients. The post-chemotherapy IgG titer evaluation showed 46 [46.9% (95% CI 37.4–56.7)] positive IgG cases that this result was similar to the result of pre-treatment phase. One [1% (95% CI 0.2–5.6)] positive IgG avidity case was detected using ELISA method, in a patient with lymphoma whose IgM was also positive. There was no significant difference between the type of leukemia and the history of contact with cat.

    Conclusion: Performing specialized tests to diagnose toxoplasma infection before starting treatment, in immunodeficiency patients who undergo chemotherapy, is necessary; therefore, these tests should be considered in therapeutic protocols.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 212 | views: 352 | pages: 196-203

    Background: Toxocara spp. is a zoonotic parasite that can infect human; children are the largest group at risk of infection. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and viability of Toxocara spp. eggs in the soil of public parks.

    Methods: Overall, 1180 soil samples from 236 public parks in four sectors of the city of Culiacan were collected at random, between Jun and Dec, 2013. The presence of Toxocara spp. eggs was determined by light microscopy using a centrifugation-flotation technique and viability by trypan blue staining technique.

    Results: Of the 236 parks sampled, 18 were positive to Toxocara spp. resulting in a prevalence of 7.6% and viability of 94.4% with a P<0.05. Detection of Toxocara spp.in soil samples was 16.5% and viability 94.7% with a P<0.05. Parks positive to Toxocara spp., had sports fields and playgrounds (94.4%), trees and green areas (88.8%).

    Conclusion: Although a low prevalence of Toxoxara spp. eggs in the soil of public parks was found, they exhibited high viability, suggesting that the soil from these public parks is a source of infection for pets and humans especially children.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 160 | views: 447 | pages: 204-213

    Background: We aimed at genotyping and evaluating the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages isolated from patients referred to medical laboratories in Khorramabad, Iran from Nov 2015 to Sep 2016. Hence, the development of a cost-effective HRM approach to determine genotypes of G. duodenalis based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene was examined and the genotyping results with and without diarrhea was compared.

    Methods: Seventy G. duodenalis positive fecal samples were collected. A microscopic confirmation for the presence of Giardia spp. was performed, cysts of 70 Giardia spp. positive specimens were concentrated using sucrose flotation technique and sucrose solution PCR amplification was performed on 69 of 70 (98.5%) samples, and High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was performed using a software.

    Results: The results showed two distinct genotypes (assemblages A and B) of G. duodenalis but infections with mixture of both assemblages were not detected. The genotypes of G. duodenalis showed that the sub assemblage AI, BIII and BIV were present in a proportion of 68.1%, 20.3% and 11.6% respectively in samples. Assemblage AI was significantly (P<0.05) more frequently found in patients with diarrhea.

    Conclusion: The sub-assemblage AI, BIII, and BIV are more zoonotic potential. According to the comparison of the results of this study with the results of previous studies in this area and around of it, as well as the way people live and keep pets. This pattern established in Khorramabad city. HRM can be an ideal technique to detect and genotyping of G. duodenalis in clinical samples.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 178 | views: 448 | pages: 214-222

    Background: To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, hematological and biochemical features of 33 cases hospitalized with pediatric visceral leishmaniasis (PVL) in North Khorasan Province of Iran from 2005 to 2015.

    Methods: The serological, hematological and biochemical tests were employed in 33 children between 8 months to 6 yr with a final diagnosis of acute visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The diagnosis of VL was established by microscopic demonstration of Leishmania spp. amastigotes inactive bone marrow aspiration (BMA).

    Results: The most common presenting features were anemia (82.5%), fever (75%), and hepatosplenomegaly (45.4%). Various hematological parameters showed that most patients were suffering from moderate to severe microcytic hypochromic anemia (78.8% had RBC count less than 4 million cells/ul, 67.7% Hb less than 8 fl). 66.7% of them were leukopenic (WBC: less than 5× 103 /μL) and 24.2% had decreased platelet counts. Pancytopenia was observed in 18.2% of cases. MCV, MCH, and MCHC levels were below the reference range in 88%, 90% and 85.1% of the patients respectively. Moreover, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased in 53.33% and 6.66% of the patients respectively. 92.9% of cases were C-reactive protein (CRP) positive. Bone marrow was found hyper-cellular in all of them, and myeloid to erythroid ratio (M/E) was more than 4 in 39.1% of cases. Plasma cells slightly were increased in 60% of patients and megakaryocytes were decreased in thrombocytopenic patients.

    Conclusion: Bone marrow/splenic aspiration still remains the gold standard test despite its risk and pain for patients.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 242 | views: 329 | pages: 223-232

    Background: There are only two anti-trypanocidal drugs available, both have a lot of side effects. This is the pioneer study designed to evaluate the Arthrospira maxima effect in Trypanosoma cruzi -infected mice and macrophages.

    Methods: A. maxima was administered in vivo, and in vitro (120µL/mL; 200 µL/mL; 500 µL/mL; 852 µL/mL) as prophylaxis, and treatment. In vitro, phagocytosis and viability were measured in macrophages cultures supplemented with A. maxima, and T. cruzi-infected. In vivo A. maxima was supplemented to T. cruzi-infected mice in order to obtain the parasitemia curves, parasite amount, and histopathologic changes. This assay was performed in Biological Sciences National School of National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, in 2019.

    Results: In vivo, A. maxima administration exacerbates the immune innate host´s response, followed by mice early death. In vitro, A. maxima supplementation promote T. cruzi- macrophage phagocytosis, but also a sooner T. cruzi- infected macrophage death.

    Conclusion: A. maxima administration overactive the immune system, decreasing the parasitemia, but causing a severe tissue damage. Then, this nutraceutical has a paradoxical effect on intracellular parasitic infections such as Chagas disease.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 221 | views: 368 | pages: 233-239

    Fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by the trematodes Fasciola hepatica in humans and animals. Proteases are essential for the survival of parasites and have important activities such as penetration, tissue migration, and egg hatching. This study was conducted to analyze cysteine protease of the miracidia and eggs of F. hepatica, and to assess the effects of pH and temperature on the proteases activity and stability.

    Methods: Adults F. hepatica were isolated from infected livers and were morphologically identified in 2018. Eggs collected from the adults and incubated in distilled water at 28 °C for 16 d to produce miracidia. The extract was collected from miracidia and eggs. A substrate for cathepsin B (Z-Arg-Arg-Pna) was used to assess the enzyme activity at different (2-12) pH levels. After homogenization, protein level was measured with Bradford method. Estimation of optimum temperature and pH was performed in the temperature range of 10-90 ° C and pH values from 2-12.

    Results: The highest activity of the miracidia and eggs enzyme extracts for Z-Arg-Arg-pNA was at pH 4. The miracidia extract was most stable at neutral pH and the eggs extract was most stable in acidic pH. The optimum temperature activity for both stages was 40 °C. These proteases were stable up to 40 °C.

    Conclusion: Upon the importance of pH and temperature in the life cycle of F. hepatica, the current findings can be used for induction of some modifications in pH and preventing the activity of the enzymes for decrement of the efficacy of miracidia penetration into the intermediate snails and egg hatching of this zoonotic parasite.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 184 | views: 375 | pages: 240-247

    Background: The raccoon, Procyon lotor Linn. (Procyonidae) is native to North and Central America but has been introduced in several European and Asian countries including Japan, Germany and Iran. Objective of this study was to determine frequency of gastrointestinal and tissue helminthes from feral raccoons in Iran.

    Methods: During 2015-2017, 30 feral raccoons including 12 males and 18 females were collected from Guilan Province, northern Iran (the only region in Iran where raccoons are found). The gastrointestinal tracts and tissues such as lung, liver and muscles were examined for presence of helminthes.

    Results: Twenty raccoons (66.7%) were found infected with five intestinal helminth species. The prevalence of infection with Strongyloides procyonis Little, 1966 (Nematoda) was 63.3%, Plagiorchis koreanus Ogata, 1938 (Trematoda) (13.3%), Centrorhynchus sp. Lühe, 1911 (Acanthocephala) (10.0%), Camerostrongylus didelphis Wolfgang, 1951 (Nematoda) (3.3%), and Spirocerca lupi Rudolphi, 1809 (Nematoda) (3.3%). No larvae or adult worms were found in other tissues of the examined raccoons.

    Conclusion: Most of the raccoons were infected with S. procyonis. The public health importance of zoonotic parasites transmittable through raccoons, the rapid control and decrease of raccoon populations and their distribution in Iran are also discussed.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 172 | views: 349 | pages: 248-252

    Background: Toxocara canis is a gastrointestinal nematode of dogs and other canids with high zoonotic potential. Human infection occurs following ingestion of infective eggs that have been passed in the dogs’ feces. Contact with contaminated soils, is one of the most important risk factors for human infection by T. canis eggs. However, in recent studies transmission of infective eggs, through human contact with contaminated dogs’ hair have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on the hair and feces of dogs which attended to Veterinary Clinic of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.

    Methods: A total 100 dogs which attended to the clinic were used in the present study. The hair samples were collected from the head, back and perineal region of dogs’ body. Besides collecting hairs, fecal samples were also collected and analyzed for the presence of T. canis eggs.

    Results: T. canis eggs were found in 11% of the hair samples and 10% of the feces samples. Additionally, it has been observed that the risk factors impact such as breed, season of sampling, sex, hair length, indoor-outdoor access and age, were not significant on the T. canis eggs presence in the faecal and hair samples.

    Conclusion: Human exposure to the hair of dogs, may be significant risk factor for infection and regular anthelmintic treatment, hygiene of animals and public education of the importance of dogs are recommended to prevent human toxocariasis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 171 | views: 347 | pages: 253-258

    Background: Our knowledge of the epidemiology of rodents’ parasitic agents in Iran is scarce, although some of these pathogens play an important role in human and veterinary medicine, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in rodents of northwestern Iran between Mar and Dec 2015.

    Methods: Overall, 157 serum samples from rodents (101 Meriones persicus, 41 Mus musculus, and 15 Cricetulus migratorius) were assayed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum.

    Results: We found a prevalence of 20.38% (32/157) for N. caninum, 35% (55/157) for T. gondii. Co-presence of antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii was found in 10 (6.36%) rodents. A significant association was found between the rodents species and seropositivity to N. caninum (P<0.05) but there was no association with rodents species for T. gondii. The overall prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was higher in male versus female rodents.

    Conclusion: The high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in rodents in the study area has implications for translocation of these infections across wider geographical regions since these rodents are mostly preyed on by cats or dogs; hence, which can transfer the parasite to other hosts.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 160 | views: 342 | pages: 259-265

    Background: Hydatidosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection and Hamadan Province in the west of Iran is one of the most important foci of human hydatidosis in Iran. The aim of the current study was the genetic characterization of hydatid cysts operated from humans in Hamadan Province.

    Methods: Seventy-two hydatid cysts samples including 50 paraffinized and 22 fresh human hydatid cysts collected from different hospitals in Hamadan Province, western Iran. The cysts' DNA genome was extracted by kit and PCR was performed for amplifying the fragments of 400 and 450bp for nad1 and cox1 mitochondrial genes, respectively. Genotype diversity and sequence variations of the cysts' isolates were studied by related software.

    Results: DNA from all (100%) paraffinized and fresh hydatid cysts samples extracted successfully. All paraffinized and fresh hydatid cysts samples were amplified by PCR assay using nad1gene, however, only 18 and 8 samples from paraffinized and fresh hydatid cyst samples was amplified using cox1 gene, respectively. The sequences analysis indicated that, 98.61% the Echinococcus granulosus samples were belong to the genotype G1 and 1.39% were G3 genotype.

    Conclusion: Genotypes of E. granulosus in human samples in Hamadan Province are G1 and G3 and these findings are proved by phylogenic analysis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 188 | views: 279 | pages: 266-271

    Background: Rabbits contain several parasites that can be harmful to their health as well as human being’s health due to the probability of causing parasitic zoonosis. The present research was designed to study ectoparasites and endoparasites of New Zealand White rabbits in North West of Iran and potential risks of parasitic zoonosis for researchers and owners.

    Methods: Totally, 50 rabbits were purchased from rabbit sellers and breeders in suburbs of Urmia and Tabriz between Jul and Dec 2016. The rabbits were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths and protozoa infection. Faecal sampling was carried out directly from recti and the oocysts or cysts were isolated using sedimentation and floatation techniques and the sporulated oocyst were identified based on morphological.

    Results: The following parasites, with their respective prevalence; Nematoda: Passalurus ambigus 54%, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis 42%, Nematodirus leporis 32%, Cestoda: Cysticercus pisiformis 26%, Protozoa: Eimeria steidae 44%, E. magna 30%, E. media 12% and Arthropoda: Sarcoptes scabiei 18% and Cheyletiella parasitivorax 38%. No significant difference was recorded in infection rate between male and female rabbits.

    Conclusion: Both domestic and wild rabbits are a potential source of human parasitic zoonosis, and strict hygienic practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or in case of exposure to their feces.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 175 | views: 723 | pages: 272-277

    Acanthamoeba species are vision-threatening agents by causing cornea infections known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. A 5 year-old kid with the complaints of erythema, eyelid edema, inflammation, limitation of eye movements in the right eye, and having no history of wearing contact lenses or trauma, was diagnosed of Acanthamoeba conjunctivitis through laboratory examinations in the Ophthalmology clinic. The visual sharpness of the patient improved after the treatment. A 44 year-old female patient suffering from pain, stinging, irritation, and inability to see in the left eye with the history of wearing contact lenses or trauma was diagnosed of Acanthamoeba keratitis through laboratory examinations. The agent was isolated and identified as "A. castellani" in the Genotype "T2". Examination of the left eye on the 15th day of treatment indicated that all complaints disappeared except for the cataract originated visual loss. However, the first diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis appeared in the literature on a case with no history of wearing contact lenses and trauma it is found to be attention grabbing. We think that Acanthamoeba should not be ignored among microbial agents that cause eye infection with or without trauma and contact lens usage history.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 154 | views: 280 | pages: 278-281

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease between humans and animals, transmitted by sandflies (Phlebotomus) in the Mediterranean countries, including Iran. The statistics have been reported less than real due to errors in the diagnosis and reporting of affected cases. In this report, we will present the symptoms and manifestations of this disease to reduce late detection and exacerbating factors. The patient was a three-year-old girl from Tehran, Iran who had ascites and hepatomegaly. When she was 9 month-old, she was diagnosed as autoimmune hepatitis after liver biopsy and she was treated with immunosuppressive drugs (Azathioprine, prednisolone, and cyclosporine) for 22 months, but later she suffered from fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Then a bone marrow biopsy was done for her. There was a large amount of Leishman body in her bone marrow and treatment for Kala-azar was started for her. In patients with prolonged fever and splenomegaly, especially association with pancytopenia, consider leishmaniasis. Immunosuppressive drugs can disseminate parasitic diseases, including visceral leishmaniasis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 194 | views: 318 | pages: 282-286

    According to the last information of IUCN Red List, Eurasian lynx has been endangered since 2010. The population of this animal is heavily affected by infectious parasites. Two adult Eurasian lynx (one male and one female) were illegally hunted and found dead in Parvar National Park, Semnan Province, Iran. After the autopsy, the tissue and parasite samples were collected from gastrointestinal tract and transferred to 70% alcohol. Samples were recovered and identified as Joyeuxiella spp.  Sonsino, 1889. Tissue samples were taken from the place of sticking of parasites on the intestinal wall, for histopathological examination, and were transferred to 10% buffered formalin. Following routine processes and H&E staining, the slides were examined microscopically. Main histopathological observations were epithelial hyperplasia and destruction, inflammatory cell infiltration in mucosa and submucosa of jejunum. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first report and histopathological study of Joyeuxiella spp. in the world in Eurasian lynx.

Letter to the Editor