Isolation and Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Based on GRA6 Gene from Environmental Soil Samples in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran
Background: Soil is one of the environmental sources of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. The other hand, genotype of the parasite is one of the important factors for its pathogenicity. Due to the importance of toxoplasmosis on public health, this study aimed to isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in environmental soil samples of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran.
Methods: Overall, 192 soil samples were collected from different areas in Mazandaran Province from Apr to Sep 2014. The flotation method was used for recovering oocysts. Then, soil samples were investigated for DNA detection of T. gondii using nested PCR of RE gene, genotyping with Semi-nested PCR of GRA6 gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. A significant difference was considered with a P<0.05.
Results: From 192 soil samples, T. gondii DNA was detected in 150 samples (78.1%). Then genotype of 23 samples was determined (91.3% type I and 8.7% type II).
Conclusion: Prevalence of T. gondii in soil samples of Mazandaran province, north of Iran is high and T. gondii GRA6 type I is predominant. Soil can be the most important source of severe toxoplasmosis in this province.
2. Israelski D, Remington J. Toxoplasmosis in the non-AIDS immunocompromised host. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 1993; 13:322-56.
3. Wong SY, Remington JS. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis. 1994:853-61.
4. Dumètre A, Dardé M-L. How to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples? FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003; 27:651-61.
5. Dubey J, Jones J. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. Int J Parasitol. 2008; 38(11):1257-78.
6. Sibley L, Howe D. Genetic basis of patho-genicity in toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii: Springer; 1996. p. 3-15.
7. Zia-Ali N, Fazaeli A, Khoramizadeh M, et al. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains from different hosts in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2007; 101(1):111-5.
8. Boothroyd JC, Grigg ME. Population biolo-gy of Toxoplasma gondii and its relevance to human infection: do different strains cause different disease? Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002; 5(4):438-42.
9. Tavalla M, Oormazdi H, Akhlaghi L, et al. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from soil samples in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2013; 8(2):227-233.
10. Hoseini S A, Dehgani N, Sharif M,et al. Se-rological Survey of Toxoplasmosis in Preg-nant Women. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2014; 24(114):146-50.
11. Sibley LD, Khan A, Ajioka JW, et al. Genet-ic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009; 364(1530):2749-61.
12. Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis of animals and humans. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2010.
13. Daryani A, Sarvia Sh, Aarabib M, et al. Se-roprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Ira-nian general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Trop. 2014; 137:185-94.
14. Assmar M, Amirkhani A, Piazak N, et al. Toxoplasmosis in Iran. Results of a seroepi-demiological study. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1996; 90(1):19-21.
15. Afonso E, Lemoine M, Poulle ML, et al. Spatial distribution of soil contamination by Toxoplasma gondii in relation to cat defecation behavior in an urban area. Int J Parasitol. 2008; 38(8-9):1017-23.
16. Frenkel J, Ruiz A, Chinchilla M. Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1975; 24(3):439-43.
17. Frenkel J, Dubey J. Effects of freezing on the viability of Toxoplasma oocysts. J Parasi-tol. 1973; 59:587-8.
18. Lélu M, Villena I, Dardé M-L, et al. Quanti-tative estimation of the viability of Toxoplas-ma gondii oocysts in soil. Appl Environ Mi-crobiol. 2012; 78(15):5127-32.
19. Stagno S, Dykes AC, Amos CS, et al. An outbreak of toxoplasmosis linked to cats. Pediatrics. 1980; 65(4):706-12.
20. Coutinho SG, Lobo R, Dutra G. Isolation of Toxoplasma from the soil during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis in a rural area in Brazil. J Parasitol. 1982:866-8.
21. Du F, Feng H, Nie H, et al. Survey on the contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the soil of public parks of Wuhan, China. Vet Parasitol. 2012; 184(2-4):141-6.
22. Lass A, Pietkiewicz H, Modzelewska E, et al. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental soil samples using molecular methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 28(6):599-605.
23. Du F, Zhang Q, Yu Q, et al. Soil contami-nation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in pig farms in central China. Vet Parasitol. 2012; 187(1-2):53-6.
24. dos Santos TR, Nunes CM, Luvizotto MCR, et al. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples from public schools. Vet Parasitol. 2010; 171(1-2):53-7.
25. Solymane H, Eslamirad Z, Bayat M, et al. Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Oocytes in the Soil from the Public Parks of the Arak City, Iran. Res Mol Med. 2014; 2(1):35-8.
26. Rai SK, Uga S, Ono K, et al. Contamination of soil with helminth parasite eggs in Nepal. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2000; 31(2):388-93.
27. Matsuo J, Kimura D, Rai SK, et al. Detec-tion of Toxoplasma oocysts from soil by modified sucrose flotation and PCR meth-ods. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004, 35(2):270-4.
28. Fallahi S, Tabaei SJS, Pournia Y, et al. Com-parison of loop-mediated isothermal ampli-fication (LAMP) and nested-PCR assay tar-geting the RE and B1 gene for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples of chil-dren with leukaemia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014; 79(3):347-54.
29. Fallahi S, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M, et al. Comparison of the RE and B1 gene for de-tection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chil-dren with cancer. Parasitol Int. 2014; 63(1):37-41.
30. Su C, Zhang X, Dubey J. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers: a high resolution and simple meth-od for identification of parasites. Int J Para-sitol. 2006; 36(7):841-8.
31. Zakimi S, Kyan H, Oshiro M, et al. Genetic characterization of GRA6 genes from Toxo-plasma gondii from pigs in Okinawa, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2006; 68(10):1105-7.
32. Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Tox-oplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol. 2000; 30(12-13):1217-58.
33. Daryani A, Sharif M, Meigouni M. Sero-prevalence of IgG and IgM anti Toxoplasma antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients, northern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(4):271-4.
34. Sharif M, Daryani A, Barzegar G, et al. A seroepidemiological survey for toxoplasmo-sis among schoolchildren of Sari, Northern Iran. Trop Biomed. 2010; 27(2):220-5.
35. Meerburg BG, Kijlstra A. Changing climate-changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe. Parasitol Res. 2009; 105(1):17-24.
36. Tavalla M, Oormazdi H, Akhlaghi L,et al. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012; 11(20):4575-8.
37. Habibi G, Imani A, Gholami M, et al. De-tection and identification of Toxoplasma gondii type one infection in sheep aborted fetuses in Qazvin province of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012; 7(3):64-72.
38. Khademvatan S, Saki J, Yousefi E, et al. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from birds in the southwest of Iran. Br Poult Sci. 2013; 54(1):76-80.
|Issue||Vol 15 No 2 (2020)|
|Toxoplasma gondii Soil Genotype GRA6 protein|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|