2021 Impact Factor: 1.217
2021 CiteScore: 1.8
Gholamhossein Edrissian, Pharm. D.
This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Vol 12 No 2 (2017)
Background: Helminths sometimes require surgical or endoscopic intervention. Helminths may cause acute abdomen, mechanical intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforation, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and appendicitis. This study aimed to determine the surgical diseases that helminths cause and to gather, analyze the case reports, case series and original articles about this topic in literature.
Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective observational study. In order to determine the studies published in literature, the search limits in PubMed database were set to 1 Jan 1957 and 31 Mar 2016 (59 yr), and the articles regarding Helminth-Surgery-Endoscopy were taken into examination. Among 521 articles scanned, 337 specific ones were involved in this study.
Results: The most common surgical pathology was found to be in Ascaris lumbricoides group. Enterobius vermicularis was found to be the parasite that caused highest amount of acute appendicitis. Anisakiasis was observed to seem mainly because of abdominal pain and mechanical intestinal obstruction. Strongyloides stercoraries causes duodenal pathologies such as duodenal obstruction and duodenitis. Taenia saginata comes into prominence with appendicitis and gastrointestinal perforations. Fasciola hepatica exhibits biliary tract involvement and causes common bile duct obstruction. Hookworms were observed to arise along with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and anemia. Trichuris trichiuria draws attention with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical intestinal obstruction.
Conclusion: Helminths may lead to life-threatening clinic conditions such as acute abdomen, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, and hemorrhages. There is a relationship between surgery and helminths. It is very important for surgeons to consider and remember helminths in differential diagnoses during their daily routines.
Background: Cryptosporidium species are recognized as important gastrointestinal pathogens. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence, clinical manifestations and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in patients with gastrointestinal illnesses (GIs) in western Iran.
Methods: Overall, 1301 fecal samples were collected from patients with GIs referred to the 12 clinical laboratories in Nahavand County, west of Iran. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method was used to identify the oocysts. DNA was extracted from positive samples and Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by Nested PCR and sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 16.
Results: Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was 1.3% (17/1301). Cryptosporidium infection was significantly associated with vomiting and nausea (P=0.001, OR=0.013; CI 95%=0.004- 0.044), abdominal pain (P=0.018, OR=0.073; CI 95%=0.008- 0.633) and diarrhea (P=0.001, OR=0.092; CI 95%=0.023- 0.362). Of the 17 isolates typed, 11 belonged to the C. parvum IId subtype family (subtypes IIdA26G1 and IIdA20G1) and six belonged to the C. parvum IIa subtype family (subtypes IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G3R1). There was no significant difference between subtype families IIa and IId in occurrence of clinical symptoms (P= 0.75).Conclusion: Improved hygiene and avoidance of contact with animals and contaminated soil should be advocated to reduce the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections, especially in children.
Background: One of the most important zoonotic helminths in the world is known as Echinococcus granulosus. Different strains of the E. granulosus have been described based on morphological and molecular characterizations, however, there is limited information regarding the characteristics of the phenotypes and genotypes of E. granulosus in Iran.
Methods: The present study was prepared to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of E. granulosus isolates collected from human, goat, sheep, and cattle based on 19 standard morphometric parameters and mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1, ND1, and ITS1) in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran during 2013-2014.
Results: The biometric analysis for the 19 characters revealed that the 19 morphometric values of cattle isolates were exceptionally higher than human, goat, and sheep isolates (P<0.05). Molecular analysis confirms the morphological findings. Phylogenic analysis of the CO1, NAD1 and ITS1 genes for all isolates, independent of the host, revealed that the common sheep strain (G1) is traveling among livestock in Kashan and the strains are highly adapted to goats, cattle, sheep, and humans.Conclusion: Both morphological and molecular results of this study indicated that the only genotype G1 of E. granulosus travels between humans and other intermediate hosts of this parasite in the area study.
Background: The protective response developed against Trichinella spiralis infection provokes immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T helper cells. We aimed to evaluate the effect of albendazole or myrrh on the expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis.
Methods: This study was done at the Animal House of Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University (Assiut, Egypt) from April to December 2015. Mice were infected with 300 T. spiralis larvae and treated with albendazole (50 mg/kg per day) or myrrh (500 mg/kg per day) for 3 consecutive days post-infection (pi). The expression of INF-γ and IL-10 was detected in the intestinal tissue by reverse transcription (RT) PCR.
Results: The expression of IFN-γ in mice treated with albendazole and myrrh was detected on days 3 and 15 pi respectively. In the control group, it was found on days 5, 10, 15 and 20 pi with the highest expression on day 15 pi. The expression of IL-10 was detected on days 3, 20 pi in the albendazole and myrrh treated groups, respectively. In the control group, IL-10 expression appeared on days 5 and day 20 pi.Conclusion: The target of albendazole and myrrh on the profile of IFN-γ and IL-10 on these cytokines were encouraging to reinforce their therapeutic use against trichinellosis.
Background: Swimming in contaminated water was reported to be associated with Acanthamoeba and N. fowleri human infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of isolation and identification of the different species of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria from two swimming pools in Alexandria University.
Methods: Samples were collected from the swimming pools of Alexandria University Stadium and Faculty of Agriculture-Alexandria University during the period from May 2012 to April 2013.
Results: Free-living amoebae were prevalent in the collected samples. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of ten Acanthamoeba isolates and seven Naegleria isolates. Acanthamoeba T3, T4, T5, T11 and T15 genotypes were identified. Acanthamoeba T4 was the most prevalent genotype.
Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of Acanthamoeba, especially genotype T4, indicates the presence of a health hazard to swimmers particularly those wearing contact lenses. Naegleria fowleri was not found during the present study.
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB) compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis.
Methods: This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals.
Results: WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups.Conclusion: WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.
Background: To compare three molecular methods, PCR-RFLP for internal transcribed spacer, PCR sequencing and high resolution melting analysis shown reliable sensitivity and specificity for detecting Leishmania tropica as a model for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as the perspective overview for scientific and economic approaches.
Methods: This study was carried out between 2015 and 2016 in Leishmaniasis Research Center in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. The positives smears (n=50) were obtained from patients referred from the health clinics in a major anthroponotic CL (ACL) focus, southeastern Iran. Only smear preparations with the same grade were selected according to the method described by the WHO for future PCR assays.
Results: All three molecular methods had capability to identify positive samples at species level with the same specificity and sensitivity. However, these techniques were different in simplicity, consuming time, and cost effectiveness. Although additional enzymatic process in PCR-RFLP provided good resolution to find Leishmania species but this would cause time and cost increases.
Conclusion: HRM (high resolution melting) is a relatively new technique that allows direct characterization of PCR amplicons in a closed system with more simplicity, cost effectiveness and time-consuming compared with other PCR-based assays for epidemiological or clinical identification purposes.
Background: Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by Demodex mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct transmitted through close contact with an infested host.
Methods: This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA was performed on four isolates, obtained from four patients and identified morphologically through clearing with 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopical examination. Amplified fragments from the isolates were compared with GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software.
Results: A 390 bp fragment of 16S rDNA was obtained in all isolates and analysis of generated sequences showed high similarity with those submitted to GenBank, previously. Intra-species similarity and distance also showed 99.983% and 0.017, respectively, for the studied isolates. Multiple alignments of the isolates showed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16S rRNA fragment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 4 isolates clustered with other D. folliculorum, recovered from GenBank database. Our accession numbers KF875587 and KF875589 showed more similarity together in comparison with two other studied isolates.Conclusion: Mitochondrial 16S rDNA is one of the most suitable molecular barcodes for identification D. folliculorum and this fragment can use for intra-species characterization of the most human-infected mites.
Background: Carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. Stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. The current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of Guilan Province north of Iran.
Methods: Fifty road killed carnivores including 27 stray dogs (Canis familiaris), 11 golden jackals (Canis aureus) and 12 stray cats (Felis catus) were collected from 21 locations of Guilan Province, during Apr to Nov 2015. Internal organs of the carcasses, including digestive tract, heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, eyes as well as muscles were carefully inspected and sampled for helminthological investigation.
Results: About 80% of the 50 carnivores, (stray dogs 77.77%, golden jackals 81.81%, and stray cats 91.66%) were found naturally infected with helminthic parasites. Dipylidum caninum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonine, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dirofilaria immitis, Dioctophyma renale, Dipylidum caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Mesocestoides spp., Taenia hydatigena, Taenia hydatigera, Joyuxiella spp., Spirometra spp. are reported herein.Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of zoonotic helminthes such as T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, E. granulosus, D. immitis and D. renale in stray carnivores should be considered as a public health hazard, specifically within a vast tourism area like Guilan Province.
Background: One of the most important items in molecular characterization of food-borne pathogens is high quality genomic DNA. In this study, we investigated three protocols and compared their simplicity, duration and costs for extracting genomic DNA from Linguatula serrata.
Methods: The larvae were collected from the sheep’s visceral organs from the Yazd Slaughterhouse during May 2013. DNA extraction was done in three different methods, including commercial DNA extraction kit, Phenol Chloroform Isoamylalcohol (PCI), and salting out. Extracted DNA in each method was assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometery and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively.
Results: The less duration was regarding to commercial DNA extraction kit and then salting out protocol. The cost benefit one was salting out and then PCI method. The best quantity was regarding to PCI with 72.20±29.20 ng/μl, and purity of OD260/OD280 in 1.76±0.947. Agarose gel electrophoresis for assessing the quality found all the same.
Conclusion: Salting out is introduced as the best method for DNA extraction from L. seratta as a food-borne pathogen with the least costand appropriate purity. Although, the best purity was regarding to PCI but PCI is not safe as salting out. In addition, the duration of salting out was less than PCI. The least duration was seen in commercial DNA extraction kit, but it is expensive and therefore is not recommended for developing countries where consumption of offal is common.
Background: Fasciola species are the main causes for fascioliasis with great financial losses and are among the most important food/water-borne parasites worldwide. The basic proceedings such as epidemiology and effective control of fascioliasis rely mainly on precise identification of Fasciola species. The present study was conducted to determine the Fasciola species in ruminant fecal samples from East Azerbaijan Province in Iran.
Methods: Overall, 2012 fecal samples were collected and processed initially for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs in 2014-15. Then, recovered eggs were subjected to molecular identification. A fragment of 618 bp of the 28S rRNA gene pertaining to Fasciola genus was amplified under PCR. The amplified fragment was restricted by fast digest Ava II enzyme in order to a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
Results: Based on microscopic examination, 72 samples were infected, from which, 10 and 62 cases pertained to cattle and sheep samples respectively. Based on RFLP, the PCR products restricted by the Ava II restriction enzyme produced 529 bp fragments only. According to the positive controls, all restriction patterns were related to Fasciola hepatica, while no restriction patterns were linked to F. gigantica.Conclusion: Based on PCR-RFLP, F. hepatica was dominant species in animals of the studied areas and no evidence of F. gigantica was observed. Therefore, further field studies to verify these results are suggested.
Background: Dirofilariasis is a serious and potentially deadly condition in dogs and one of the zoonotic filarial infections, which inadvertently affects the humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and the molecular identity of dirofilariasis in Kerman Province, southeastern Iran between Jul and Aug 2013.
Methods: A hundred and forty-nine domestic dogs were randomly selected and five ml blood samples were taken from each dog. One ml of anticoagulant (EDTA) was used for each test in the parasitological study (modified Knott´s test) and sera samples were examined, using ELISA kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigen. Extracted DNA of all positive blood samples was used for molecular characterization and sequencing.
Results: Four (2.7%) domestic dogs of the total 149 domestic dogs were infected with micofilariae of D. immitis, while the serological study showed 8 (5.4%) domestic dogs were infected with D. immitis. No significant difference, however, was found between dirofilariasis infection and gender. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed between dirofilariasis infection and age (P<0.05). Based on the PCR findings, among the total specimens, 6 positive samples were characterized as D. immitis.Conclusion: Dirofilariasis occurred when there was low endemicity in the dogs. Such dogs could be a potential source of infection for humans. These findings could help in better understanding of the epidemiological aspects of D. immitis in the southeastern parts of Iran.
Background: Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran.
Methods: One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Results: Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp. Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.
Background: We aimed to evaluate different copro-preservation conditions along the duration of one month for a better outcome of molecular diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species.
Methods: Ten samples out of 380 fresh stool samples collected from patients with diarrhea proved positive after direct examination, concentration, staining and confirmed by immunochromatographic test. The study was conducted at the Diagnostic and Research Unit of Parasitic diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University at the time interval from July 2014 to December 2015. Each stool sample was preserved in five different conditions; freezing at -20 ºC, 70% ethyl alcohol, 10% formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate (K dichromate) at 4 ºC and 2.5% K dichromate at room temperature (RT). Then DNA extraction and nested PCR, with Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene were done from each sample at zero time (fresh specimens) as a standard for comparison with the preservation conditions at 10, 20 and 30 d.
Results: Sensitivity of studied preservative conditions along the whole study duration showed best outcome from freezing at -20 °C (80%) then K dichromate (4 °C) (73.3%) followed by K dichromate (RT) (66.7%), then alcohol (33.3%), while formalin was the worst (0%) with a highly significant comparative outcome between the different conditions. Along the three extraction intervals, K dichromate (RT), unlike all the rest of conditions lacks the consistent preservative action.Conclusion: Our study highlights freezing at -20 ºC to be the most suitable condition for preservation followed by K dichromate at 4 °C, K dichromate at RT, then 70% ethyl alcohol. Formalin (10%) is better to be avoided.
Background: Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease, infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. This study assessed the situation of the urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren of the Alsaial Alsagair village, Sudan.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2016, in the Alsaial Alsagair village, and 385 samples of urine were collected and processed using the centrifugation/sedimentation technique.
Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of the disease among the pupils studied were 1.82% and 40.1 eggs/10ml urine, respectively. The prevalence of infection among male pupils was 3.1%, and for females was 0.52%, while the intensity among males was 42.3 eggs/10ml and for females was 27 eggs/10ml urine. No significant difference in the disease prevalence between the 7-10 yr age group and the 11-14 yr age group was found, while the over 14 yr age group was found to be free from infection. However, a considerably higher intensity of the parasite was found among the 7-10 yr age group compared to the other age group infected. A high prevalence and intensity of infection was observed among pupils who were active in swimming and working in the fields. Most of the pupils interviewed were found to be unaware of the disease and the prevalence and intensity of the infection was found to be higher among the group who were aware of the disease.Conclusion: Findings show the need for an integrated control program against urinary schistosomiasis including the treatment of all infected children and the implementation of a health education program.
Background: Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis and Taenia hydatigena are among the most prevalent taeniid species of dogs. These tapeworms infect ruminant and humans as intermediate hosts and domestic/wild carnivores as the definitive hosts. Molecular tools using hypervariable microsatellite regions might provide more information about parasite variation. Highly variable and specific tools are needed for transmission tracking studies of canine echinococcosis as an essential element for implementation of hydatid control programs.
Suitable microsatellite markers used so far are EmsJ, EmsK, EmsB, EMms1, Egmsca1, Egmsga1, U1 snRNA. The purpose of the present study was to determine the microsatellite variability of EmsB as well as six other microsatellites in major taeniid species infecting dogs in Iran.
Methods: Twenty isolates of each of the four Taeniidae tapeworms were collected from sheep during routine veterinary inspection in Tehran, Alborz and Kerman provinces from October 2010 to May 2011. After DNA extraction, PCR was set up with optimum conditions using specific primers for each individual microsatellite marker. All the PCR products were evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. We used SDS-PAGE for evaluating patterns of PCR products in the tapeworms.
Results: E. granulosus as well as Taenia species could be differentiated based on EmsB microsatellite patterns. The electrophoresis patterns of two taeniid genera were readily distinguishable. EmsB could be specifically used in epidemiological studies of canine echinococcosis.Conclusion: Different patterns of EmsB proved this microsatellite marker as a reliable tool for epidemiological studies on canine echinococcosis.
Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.
Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.
Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3%) and 31/51 (60.78%), respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05). Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%), T. leonina (11.77%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9%)) and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%), Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%), Dipylidium caninum (29.41%), T. hydatigena (19.6%)) were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9). Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80%) and C. canis (20%) were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.
Hydatid cyst involves both hard and soft tissues even without the evidence of the disease in liver or lungs; however, this manifestation is very rare, particularly in musculoskeletal regions). The current report describes a case with primary diagnose of cystic gluteal swelling leading to diagnose of hydatid cyst after surgical exploration in an 80-yr-old woman the Surgical Outpatient Department, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. During surgery, the cavity was washed by silver nitrate and the cyst content was appropriately evacuated. The patient had completed a short course of albendazole postoperatively. Early postoperative complications were not appeared. The patient was followed for 6 months with no evidence of recurrence or complications.
Malaria is major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest incidence of malaria in the world is South East Asia. India is most affected country followed by Indonesia and Myanmar. The prevalence of malaria varies according to geographical region. Diagnosis of malaria infection has been underestimated. Here, we report a case of under-diagnosed complicated vivax malaria in one-yr-old child in 2016. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce both morbidity and mortality in complicated malaria infection.
2021 Impact Factor: 1.217
2021 CiteScore: 1.8
Gholamhossein Edrissian, Pharm. D.
This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
|All the work in this journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|