Parasitological, Serological and Molecular Study of Dirofilaria immitis in Domestic Dogs, Southeastern Iran
Background: Dirofilariasis is a serious and potentially deadly condition in dogs and one of the zoonotic filarial infections, which inadvertently affects the humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and the molecular identity of dirofilariasis in Kerman Province, southeastern Iran between Jul and Aug 2013.
Methods: A hundred and forty-nine domestic dogs were randomly selected and five ml blood samples were taken from each dog. One ml of anticoagulant (EDTA) was used for each test in the parasitological study (modified Knott´s test) and sera samples were examined, using ELISA kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigen. Extracted DNA of all positive blood samples was used for molecular characterization and sequencing.
Results: Four (2.7%) domestic dogs of the total 149 domestic dogs were infected with micofilariae of D. immitis, while the serological study showed 8 (5.4%) domestic dogs were infected with D. immitis. No significant difference, however, was found between dirofilariasis infection and gender. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed between dirofilariasis infection and age (P<0.05). Based on the PCR findings, among the total specimens, 6 positive samples were characterized as D. immitis.Conclusion: Dirofilariasis occurred when there was low endemicity in the dogs. Such dogs could be a potential source of infection for humans. These findings could help in better understanding of the epidemiological aspects of D. immitis in the southeastern parts of Iran.
McCall JW, Genchi C, Kramer LH et al. Heartworm disease in animals and humans. Adv Parasitol. 2008; 66:193–285.
Theis JH. Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 133(2-3):157–80.
Azari-Hamidian SH, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E et al. Review of dirofilariasis in Iran. J Guilan Univ Med Sci. 2007; 15(60):102–14.
Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Cascone C et al. Is heartworm disease really spreading in Europe? Vet Parasitol. 2005; 133(2-3):137–48.
Khedri J, Radfar MH, Borji H et al. Canine Heartworm in Southeastern of Iran with Review of disease distribution. Iran J Parasitol. 2014; 9(4):560–7.
Ranjbar-Bahadori S, Eslami A, Bokaic S. Evaluation of different methods for diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007; 10(11):1938–40.
Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Kassim M et al. Prevalence of filarial parasites in domestic and stray cats in Selangor State, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015; 8(9):705–9.
Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Mortarino M, Genchi M et al. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2009; 163(4):286–92.
Genchi C, Mortarino M, Rinaldi L et al. Changing climate and changing vector-borne disease distribution: the example of Dirofilaria in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2011; 176(4):295–9.
Latrofa MS, Weigl S, Dantas-Torres F et al. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of species of filarioids infesting dogs. Acta Trop. 2012; 122(1):150–4.
Rishniw M, Barr SC, Simpson KW et al. Discrimination between six species of canine microfilariae by a single polymerase chain reaction. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 135(3-4):303–14.
Bourguinat C, Keller K, Prichard RK et al. Genetic polymorphism in Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2011; 181(2-4):388-92.
Rosenthal RC. The Merck Veterinary Manual Online. Overview of Mammary Tumors. Edited by Aiello SE, Mosses MA. Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. 2013.
Atkins C. Canine heartworm disease. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 6th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier. 2005. 1118-36 p.
Hall TAT. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. In: Nucleic acids symposium series. 1999. p. 95–8.
Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D et al. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013; 30(12):2725–9.
Chandy A, Thakur AS, Singh MP et al. A review of neglected tropical diseases: filariasis. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(7):581–6.
Atkins CE. Comparison of results of three commercial heartworm antigen test kits in dogs with low heartworm burdens. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003; 222(9):1221–3.
Rhee JK, Yang SS, Kim HC. Periodicity exhibited by Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae identified in dogs of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 1998; 36(4):235–9.
Liu J, Song KH, Lee SE et al. Serological and molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray cats in Gyunggi Province, South Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 130(1–2):125–9.
Duran-Struuck R, Jost C, Hernandez AH. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence in a canine population in the Samana Peninsula (Dominican Republic)–June 2001. Vet Parasitol. 2005; 133(4):323–7.
Song KH, Lee SE, Hayasaki M et al. Seroprevalence of canine dirofilariosis in South Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2003; 114(3):231–6.
Yaman M, Guzel M, Koltas IS et al. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Hatay Province, Turkey. J Helminthol. 2009; 83(3):255–60.
Song KH, Park JE, Lee DH et al. Serological update and molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs, South Korea. Res Vet Sci. 2010; 88(3):467–9.
Mircean V, Dumitrache MO, Györke A et al. Seroprevalence and geographic distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and tick-borne infections in dogs from Romania. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012; 12(7):595–604.
Montoya JA, Morales M, Ferrer O et al. The prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain (1994–1996). Vet Parasitol. 1998; 75(2-3):221–6.
Traversa D, Aste G, Milillo P et al. Autochthonous foci of canine and feline infections by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2010; 169(1-2):128–32.
Yildirim A, Ica A, Atalay O et al. Prevalence and epidemiological aspects of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Kayseri Province, Turkey. Res Vet Sci. 2007; 82(3):358–63.
Simón F, Siles-Lucas M, Morchón R et al. Human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012; 25(3):507–44.
Yuasa Y, Hsu TH, Chou CC et al. The comparison of spatial variation and risk factors between mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases: Seroepidemiology of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma species, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012; 35(6):599–606.
Azari-Hamidian S, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Javadian E et al. Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 2009; 23(2):111–21.
Jafari S, Gaur SNS, Khaksar Z. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs of Fars Province of Iran. J Appl Anim Res. 1996; 9(1):27–31.
Razmaraii N, Sadegh-Eteghad S, Babaei H et al. Molecular survey of Canine Microfilariae Species in East-Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Arch Razi. 2013; 68(2):125–9.
Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Nagataki M et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Setaria digitata of Sri Lanka based on CO1 and 12S rDNA genes. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 148(2):161–5.
Huang H, Wang T, Yang G et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria immitis of China based on COI and 12S rDNA genes. Vet Parasitol. 2009; 160(1-2):175–9.
Simsek S, Ozkanlar Y, Balkaya I et al. Microscopic, serologic and molecular surveys on Dirofilaria immitis in stray dogs, Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2011; 183(1–2):109–13.
|Issue||Vol 12 No 2 (2017)|
|Dirofilaria immitis Domestic dog Diagnostic tests Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|