Iranian Journal of Parasitology (IJP) is the official publication of Iranian Society of Parasitology (ISP) launched in 2006. The society was inaugurated in 1994 and pursues the improvement of the knowledge on the parasites and parasitic diseases, exchange of scientific knowledge with foreign societies, publicity activities, and consultation on the parasitic diseases, and intimate relationship among society members.

IJP is supported and published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a quarterly basis.

The main aims of the Journal are: contribution to the field of Parasitology, including all aspects of parasites and parasitic diseases (medical and veterinary) and related fields such as Entomology which may be submitted by scientists from Iran and all over the world.
It is highly appreciated to receive your Review articles, Original papers, Short com­munications, Case reports and letters to the Editor on the above mentioned research fields.

Current Issue

Vol 18 No 1 (2023)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 127 | views: 218 | pages: 1-9

    Background: Different genotypes of Acanthamoeba have been abundantly isolated in environmental samples such as water, soil, and dust, as well as in different hospital departments and eyewash stations. This protozoan is a potential hazard for immunocompromised patients and contact lens wearers. The aim of the present study was isolation and genotyping of environmental and corneal isolates of Acanthamoeba in Hamadan, west of Iran.

    Methods: During 2018-2020, a total of 104 environmental samples including, water, soil, and dust and 16 corneal scraping samples were collected and investigated for the presence of Acanthamoeba using morphological and molecular identification tools. Genotypes were determined using sequence analysis of the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) from Acanthamoeba-specific amplimer S1 (ASA.S1) gene. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with the MEGA7 software using Neighbor-Joining method.

    Results: The presence of Acanthamoeba spp. was determined in 87.5% of water, 53.1% of soil, and 25% of dust samples. From 30 dust samples collected from eight wards of three hospitals, 7 (23.3%) were contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Sequencing analysis of environmental samples revealed that the T4 genotype was the most prevalent (92.6%) one. Genotypes T2 (1.9%), T2/T6 (1.9%), and mixed T4 and T2/T6 (3.7%) were also identified in environmental samples. Acanthamoeba was seen in none of the examined corneal scraping samples from patients with suspected keratitis.

    Conclusion: The widespread occurrence of this potentially pathogenic amoeba in most hospital wards and environmental resources and areas of the region highlights a strong need to increase awareness regarding this ubiquitous amoeba among susceptible individuals, such as immunocompromised patients and contact lens wearers.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 90 | views: 178 | pages: 10-18

    Background: We aimed to find out the allelic variation of Pfmsp-1 and Pfmsp-2 among gold miners in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia using parasites’ DNA isolated from archived RDT and GSBS

    Methods: This study was done using the samples collected between 2017-2020 from health centers in Subdistrict of Mihing Raya, Danau Rawah, and Bukit Hindu as well as Kapuas District Health Laboratory in Central Kalimantan Province, Surabaya, Indonesia. Parasites DNA were isolated from RDT cartridges and GSBS of local and migrant gold miners. Species of Plasmodium were confirmed by single step PCR. The allelic variation of Pfmsp-1 (K1, MAD20, RO33) and Pfmsp-2 (3D7, FC27) were analyzed by nested PCR.

    Results: Pfmsp-1 gene was found in only two (22.22%) out of 9 local samples, and 3 (27.27%) out of 11 migrant samples were found positive for K1 (150 bp) as well as MAD 20 (190 bp) allelic families. Pfmsp-2 gene were found in each one sample of 550 bp fragment in local (11.11%) and migrant samples (9.09%) for 3D7, and 2 samples of 300 bp fragments in local (22.22%) and 3 samples of 300 bp in migrant samples (27.27%). No difference in size and number of infections between both populations. The RO33 allelic family Alhamdulillah was not found in any sample.

    Conclusion: Low allelic variation of Pfmsp-1 and Pfmsp-2 genes with monogenotype indicated the low intensity of malaria transmission among gold miners in the studied areas. Further, the transmission may occur locally in the mining sites.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 82 | views: 150 | pages: 19-29

    Background: Porcine cysticercosis, caused by metacestodes of Taenia solium is an important neglected zoonosis. We evaluated the presence of anti-cysticercal antibodies and T. solium specific DNA in pig sera and blood samples respectively collected from Maharashtra, India.

    Methods: A total of three antigens (Scolex Antigen (SA), Membrane Body Antigen (MBA) and Excretory-Secretory Antigen (ESA)) were prepared from metacestodes of T. solium and employed in an in-house developed indirect-IgG ELISA for serological screening of 1000 porcine sera samples at Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra, India. The ELISA positive sera samples were subjected to EITB Assay for detection of immunodominant peptides. An effort has been made for molecular detection of porcine cysticercosis by PCR assay targeting large subunit rRNA gene of T. solium from blood samples of the corresponding ELISA-positive pigs.

    Results: The overall seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis employing SA, MBA and ESA was 12.6%, 8.7% and 12.5% respectively. The lower and medium molecular weight peptides were the most frequently recognised in EITB assay. The numbers of bands recognised in EITB assay were observed to be proportionate with the corresponding ELISA O.D. values. An amplification product of 286 bp was observed in 22.98% (20/87), 30.35% (30/99) and 17.14% (12/70) of the sero-positive samples against SA, ESA and MBA respectively.

    Conclusion: EITB still remains the gold standard serodiagnosis test for cysticercosis. The inclusion of a greater number of positive samples and purification of antigens may improve the diagnostic efficacy of the tests.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 71 | views: 171 | pages: 30-37

    Background: Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common parasites in humans. Contaminated food and water can be a source of infection. Substances added to food are intended to increase its safety. We aimed to determination of the influence of various microorganisms and compounds that stimulate digestive functions, as well as preservatives and antioxidants on the detection of G. intestinalis by microscopic and immunoenzymatic methods.

    Methods: Twenty stool samples, archived in 1998-2018 in the Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Station in Bydgoszcz (Poland), collected both from patients referred for parasitic examinations by a doctor of a medical facility and from private individuals, were used to assess the impact of selected factors (such as bacterial strains, viruses and substances added to food) on the detection of G. intestinalis by microscopic and immunoenzymatic methods.

    Results: G. intestinalis was detected by both microscopic and immunoenzymatic methods with the same sensitivity (100%). The result of the G. intestinalis determination was positive in 90% of the samples after the addition of potassium sorbate, and in 25% of the samples after the addition of citric acid.

    Conclusion: The presence of other microorganism such as bacteria and viruses does not influence on the detection of G. intestinalis by microscopic and immunoenzymatic methods in stool samples. Citric acid as an antioxidant added to foods affects the detection of G. intestinalis. Due to the small number of samples used, it is necessary to continue research on the impact of various factors on the detection of protozoa.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 72 | views: 170 | pages: 38-47

    Background: Due to the opportunism character of Acanthamoeba, the presence of this parasite in the thermal water of recreational baths and hospital environments can be a risk to the health of staff, patients and others. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from the hospital environment and the thermal water of recreational baths in Markazi Province, central Iran.

    Methods: Overall, 180 samples including thermal water from recreational baths in Mahallat City and dust, soil and water from different hospitals of Arak, Farahan and Komijan cities, central Iran were collected. The presence of Acanthamoeba was investigated using microscopic examination and molecular methods. The PCR and sequencing was performed based on a specific 18S fragment of ribosomal DNA.

    Results: Based on the microscopic survey, totally 134 positive samples were detected including 35% in thermal water samples and 44.7% in hospital samples. In molecular analysis, 53.5% of the samples were identified as Acanthamoeba and 46.7% as Protacanthamoeba bohemica. The genotypes were detected as T4 (33.3%), T2 (10%), T11 (6.7%), and T5 (3.3%).

    Conclusion: The T4 was the most common genotype found in hospitals sampling sites while the T2 genotype and P. bohemica were detected in thermal water sampling sites.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 81 | views: 220 | pages: 48-55

    Background: Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis hominis are among the most common intestinal protozoa worldwide. Treatment of infection by metronidazole (MTZ) has some limitations. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Blastocystis and giardiasis among school-age children from December 2021 till March 2022 from Motoubes, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt, and determine the efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ), NTZ plus garlic and tinidazole (TIN) on Blastocystis and giardiasis infection.

    Methods: Stool samples were collected from 390 children and microscopically examined using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and culturing on Jones' medium for B. hominis. Those who tested positive for giardiasis (120 children, 30.7%) (Group I) or Blastocystis (180 children, 46.1%) (Group II) were equally divided into four subgroups. The first subgroup received NTZ orally, every 12 hours for three successive days. The second subgroup received NTZ in the same dose as the first subgroup plus dry garlic powder every 12 hours for three successive days. The third subgroup received TIN as a single oral dose, and a fourth control subgroup. Successful cure was considered if no Blastocystis or giardiasis stages were found in post-treatment faecal specimens.

    Results: Cure rate was significantly higher in TIN treated groups (75.5% and 96.6%) than NTZ (57.7% and 40% ) or NTZ plus garlic treated groups ( 55.5% and 43%) in both Blastocystis and giardiasis, respectively (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: TIN, once, is more efficacious than NTZ or NTZ plus garlic in the treatment of Blastocystis and giardiasis in children.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 59 | views: 150 | pages: 56-65

    Background: The current study considers a new direction of surgical treatment of liver echinococcosis - the use of minimally invasive treatment methods of parasitic cysts.

    Methods: After clinical and morphological substantiation of the very possibility of carrying out such procedures, 9 microwave ablations (MWA) and 3 radiofrequency ablations (RFA) of cysts were performed in patients with liver echinococcosis from 2017 to 2021 in the surgical clinic of Botkin Hospital, Moscow, Russia. A comparative analysis of treatment results of patients with echinococcal liver cysts (12 patients who underwent “percutaneous puncture, aspiration, injection and reaspiration” (PAIR) procedure and 12 patients – MWA and RFA) was carried out.

    Results: The number of complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification was as follows: 8 after PAIR procedure, 3 after RFA and 3 after MWA. The median hospital length of stay (LOS) after PAIR procedure was 6.46 days versus 4.7 and 4 in the groups of patients who underwent RF and MW ablation, respectively. The frequency of relapses within the first year after PAIR procedure was 25%. The patients who underwent ablation procedures had no relapses of liver echinococcosis during observation.

    Conclusion: The presented clinical and morphological substantiation and the experience of using various types of ablation techniques on echinococcal cysts, as well as a comparative analysis with a commonly used PAIR treatment method, demonstrated the safety of RFA and MWA for the patient and efficacy in relation to the hydatid process.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 63 | views: 164 | pages: 66-75

    Background: This study aimed to develop new complex preparations of ivermectin, niclosamide and albendazole based on solid-phase mechanochemical technology, and to evaluate their efficacy against equine nematodosis and cestodosis.

    Methods: Novel formulation of antiparasitic paste were prepared using joint mechanochemical treatment of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg bodyweight; BW), niclosamide (10 mg/kg BW) and albendazole (3, 5, 10 mg/kg BW) substances with polyvinylpyrrolidone and arabinogalactan. For the evaluation of activity of different doses of formulations against gastrointestinal tract helminths a total of 151 adult horses of the Novoaltai breed weighing 450–500 kg naturally infected with strongyles (>150 egg per gram of faeces, EPG), Parascaris spp. (>20 EPG) and Anoplocephala spp. (>10 EPG) were selected. Antiparasitic pastes were orally fed to the horses and faecal egg count reduction counts were compared prior to and 14 days after the treatment.

    Results: Pastes with mechanically modified ivermectin showed 91.4–100% efficacy against strongyles and Parascaris. Pastes with modified albendazole and niclosamide were also effective against Anoplocephala in all tested dosages i.e. 78.6–100%. In particular, treatment with two formulations containing i) 0.2 mg ivermectin, 10 mg albendazole, 10 mg niclosamide, and ii) 0.2 mg ivermectin, 3 mg albendazole showed 100% efficacy against strongyles, Parascaris and Anoplocephala.

    Conclusion: Solid-phase mechanochemical technology could be applied in equine anthelminthics production. It is suggested that future studies focus on plasma concentration-time profile of these highly effective pastes.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 287 | views: 183 | pages: 76-84

    Background: Intestinal parasites are responsible for a significant amount of disease and mortality around the world. In developing nations, intestinal parasites are a severe public health issue. Intestinal parasite infections are one of the most common illnesses in the world. They're frequently linked to poor personal and environmental cleanliness, as well as low-quality drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their shifting trends during a five-year period at Mizan-Tepi University of Teaching Hospital (MTUTH).

    Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective survey using the past five years' (2017 to 2021) clinical records obtained from MTUTH Mizan-Aman town Southern west Ethiopia. Patients with complete age, sex, and stool parasite examination (direct wet mount or concentration techniques) records on the parasitology registration book were included. Data were entered and analysed using a Microsoft Excel sheet. The parasite prevalence was calculated using frequency and percentages.

    Results: Overall, 17,030 patient records of the past five years were reviewed from the registration books of parasitology laboratory departments at MTUTH and only 546 records were taken for this study. Of these 336 (61.50%) were female and the rest 210 (38.50%) were males. One hundred eighty-two (182) 33.33% of patients had one or more intestinal parasites over five years from 2017 to 2021. From total of 546 patients’ records 17.77% in 2017, 18.89% in 2018, 23.44% in 2019, 19.96% in 2020 and 19.96% in 2021 had complete information.

    Conclusion: Intestinal parasite prevalence was high among patients who visited the Mizan-Tepi University of Teaching Hospital during the five-year period. Helminthes and protozoan parasites prevalence was higher in the 15–45 years age category. In order to avoid intestinal parasite-related disease, strategies other than mass drug administration are required.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 67 | views: 161 | pages: 85-92

    Background: After the earthquake in 2017 a few new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported from SarPol-e-Zahab district of Kermanshah Province, western part of Iran. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence in Kermanshah Province.

    Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on children up to 12 years of age from SarPol-e-Zahab County, Kermanshah Province, western part of Iran in 2021. For each individual, a questionnaire including age, sex, clinical features, history of the disease, and contact with canines as reservoir hosts of VL were completed, separately. To determine VL seroprevalence, blood samples were collected from the children and after centrifugation, the sera samples were separated and tested using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) for detection of   anti-L. infantum antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS16.

    Results: Totally, 13 persons were seropositive; 7 samples with titer 1:800, 3 samples had 1:1600, 2 samples had 1:3200 and 1 sample had 1:6400. None of the seropositive cases had a history of kala-azar. There was no significant difference between males and females at titers of anti-Leishmania specific antibodies.

    Conclusion: L. infantum infection is being circulated with low prevalence in children up to 12 years old from SarPol-e-Zahab County but it is necessary that the surveillance system is regularly monitored among physicians and public health managers in the studied areas.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 83 | views: 203 | pages: 93-99

    Background: Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can causes adverse outcomes. Regarding its importance in prenatal care, seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women was studied in Ardabil City, during 2021-2022.

    Methods: In a cross–sectional study with a cluster sampling, 244 pregnant women that attended in health care centers of Ardabil City, Ardabil Province, Iran in 2021-2022 were selected. Serum samples were collected and Anti- Toxoplasma IgM (immunoglobulin M) and IgG (immunoglobulin G) was detected. Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection and risk factors assessed. Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

    Results: Participant's age ranged from 16 to 43 years with average of 23± 5.24 years. IgG anti- T. gondii antibody was detected in 22.1% of pregnant women (54/244). In none of participants IgM anti- Toxoplasmosis antibody was detected. There was no significant relationship between demographic variables and risk factors of toxoplasmosis with serology test results.

    Conclusion: Approximately, 77.9% of pregnant women had no antibody against the T. gondii infection. Therefore, health education, counseling of pregnant women and screening in high-risk pregnant women is recommended to prevent from fetal complications.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 68 | views: 153 | pages: 100-106

    Background: Hydatid cyst, caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most severe cestode infections occurring in Iran. The liver is the most commonly involved organ. The present study was carried out to review the demographic of 20 years surgically treated hydatic cysts.

    Methods: Ninety-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Demographic features, time of surgery, cyst size, and albendazole usage have been reviewed from the medical records of patients in Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2001 to 2021. Statistical analysis was performed to find any correlation between the uses of concurrent albendazole with surgical procedure.

    Results: Of 98 patients with hydatid cyst, 57 (58.2%) were female. The mean age of patients was 39.4 ± 18.7 yrs, and the mean surgery time was 217.5 ±   81.4 minutes. Regarding the infection site, the liver (60.2%) and lungs (22.4%) were the most affected organs, respectively. 56.1% of patients had one cyst, and 42.9 % had two or more cysts. 20.4% of them had taken albendazole before surgery, but 86.7 % took it after the operation. No recurrent cysts were seen among 91.8% of them, but 8.2% mentioned suffering from a recurrent cyst. 85.7% of those recurrent cases did not receive albendazole before surgery, and 75% of recurrent cases after surgery did not take albendazole (P<0.05).

    Conclusion:  Administration of albendazole before and after the operation was significantly related to reduced recurrence, bleeding, morbidity, and even the time of surgery.

Case Report(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 62 | views: 171 | pages: 107-112

    Radio Immune Assay (RIA) is an extremely sensitive in vitro assay technique to measure concentrations of antigen viz. hormones in biological fluids using antibodies. The present study reports the status of total triiodothyronine (TT3) and total thyroxine (TT4) in Trypanosoma evansi infection in a dog, year 2022. An adult, non-descript, male dog was referred to the Department of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, Mumbai Veterinary College, (MAFSU), Parel, Mumbai (India) with a history of inappetence, weakness, and ataxia of the hind limbs. Inspection revealed cachexia, anemia, bedsores, and mild mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharge. Clinical examination revealed pyrexia, polypnoea and tachycardia. There was an enlargement of popliteal, pre-scapular, and submandibular lymph nodes. The blood smear examination revealed severe infection of extracellular T. evansi. Laboratory investigations showed an altered haemato-biochemical profile. RIA-enabled thyroid hormone profile revealed a reduced concentration of TT3 (0.57 nmol/l) and TT4 (22.52 nmol/l). The present study reports a reduction in the concentration of TT3 and TT4 in a dog suffering from trypanosomiasis. The drop in TT4 concentration was within the normal limit, this could be a cause for the non-appearance of usual clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism in the present case. 

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 51 | views: 145 | pages: 113-118

    Nosocomial myiasis is a rare event that has a higher incidence in the hospitals of poor and developing countries. The presence of nosocomial myiasis reflects the need for improved medical facilities and increased awareness among healthcare personnel. Severely ill patients are more susceptible, such as those with impaired consciousness, paralysis, and underlying diseases. The two cases here in described represent the first report of nosocomial myiasis in the Kurdistan Province, in Western Iran and one of them is the first report of myiasis involving a COVID-19-infected patient. The causal agent was Lucilia sericata. The taxonomical identification of the larvae of the second and third instar was based on the morphology of the cephaloskeleton, anterior spiracles, and peritreme plaques.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 74 | views: 166 | pages: 119-124

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) frequently occurs in many rural and urban areas of Iran. Leishmania major and L. tropica are principally two causative agents of CL in Iran. We report here a case of leishmaniasis of the ear in a 61-year-old man referred to the Reference laboratory, Kashan, central Iran, in Jan 2022. He suffered from a 2-month history of a 1×3 cm lesion on the left ear. In the microscopy examination, amastigotes forms of Leishmania spp. were observed. L. tropica was confirmed using a single PCR with species-specific primers. The patient was introduced to a physician to begin the treatment protocol. It is recommended that physicians, especially in an endemic area, investigate any atypical lesion for CL.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 46 | views: 169 | pages: 125-128

    Hydatid cyst is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus for which man is an accidental intermediate host. The hydatid disease commonly involves the liver and lungs. Involvement of extrahepaticopulmonary sites is extremely rare and only a few isolated cases have been reported. In 2022, a 49 year old female from the southern part of Indian subcontinent presented to us with recurrent hydatid cyst of liver co-existing with hydatid cyst of the left broad ligament, twenty years following the initial procedure. She underwent exploratorylaparotomy and cystectomy and was then managed by ERCP and stenting following which she is asymptomatic till date. Though there are no hard and fast rules, the management of such cases mandate proper exploration to avoid any recurrence. Tailored surgical approaches maybe required according to the patient condition for effective, safe and recurrence free treatment of hepatic hydatidosis.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 57 | views: 141 | pages: 129-131

    In humans and other mammals, urinary myiasis can be rarely caused by Eristalis tenax, which belongs to the order Diptera. In this case, we report a 21-year-old woman with this myiasis. She was complaining of dysuria and bilateral Costo-lumbar pain. The larva in her urine sample was identified as E. tenax associated with its typical morphology.

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