Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2015. 10(4):617-624.

Development of a Double Glass Mounting Method Using Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) and its Evaluation for Permanent Mounting of Small Nema¬todes
Farzaneh ZAHABIUN, Seyed Mahmoud SADJJADI, Farideh ESFANDIARI


Background: : Permanent slide preparation of nematodes especially small ones is time consuming, difficult and they become scarious margins. Regarding this prob­lem, a modified double glass mounting method was developed and com­pared with classic method.

Methods: A total of 209 nematode samples from human and animal origin were fixed and stained with Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophenol (FAAL) followed by double glass mounting and classic dehydration method us­ing Canada balsam as their mounting media. The slides were evaluated in differ­ent dates and times, more than four years. Different photos were made with differ­ent magnification during the evaluation time.

Results: The double glass mounting method was stable during this time and compa­rable with classic method. There were no changes in morphologic struc­tures of nematodes using double glass mounting method with well-defined and clear differentiation between different organs of nematodes in this method.

Conclusion: Using this method is cost effective and fast for mounting of small nematodes comparing to classic method. 


Nematodes; Double Glass Mount-ing; Permanent Mounting; Formaldehyde Alcohol Azocarmine Lactophe-nol

Full Text:



Ashford RW and Crewe W. The parasites of Homo sapiens – an annotated checklist of the protozoa, helminths and arthropods for which we are home. 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Francis; 2003.

Zibaei M, Sadjjadi SM, Jahad-Hosseini SH. Toxocara cati larvae in the eye of a child: a case report. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014; 4(1): 53-5.

Sadjjadi SM, Ardehali SM, Shojaei A. A case report of Linguatula serrata in human pharynx from Shiraz, Southern Iran. Med J Islam Re-pub Iran.1988; 12 (2):193-4.

Meamar AR, Kia EB, Zahabiun F, Jafari-Mehr A, Moghadam A, Sadjjadi SM. The occurrence of severe infections with Rhabditis axei in AIDS patients in Iran. J Helminthol. 2007; 81(4): 351-2.

Seinhorst JW. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glyc-

erin. Nematologica. 1959; 4(1): 67-9.

Baker AD. Rapid method for mounting nema-todes in glycerin. Can Ent.1953; 85(2): 77-8.

Hooper DJ. Handling, fixing, staining and mounting nematodes. In: Southey, JF. (Ed.) Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. London: MAFF; 1986. P. 59-80.

Sadjjadi SM. A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-containing medium for permanent mounting of helminth eggs. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002; 96(1):104.

Sabu L, Devada K, Sreekrishnan R. Single step processing of nematodes in FAAL solution. Vet Parasitol. 2012; 26(1): 91 – 2.

Al-Amura MFA, Hassen ZA, AL-Mhanawi BH. Staining technique for helminth parasites by use red beet (beta vulgaris l.) Extract. Bas J Vet Res. 2012;11(1):283-92.

Khrustalev AV, Hoberg EP. Silver staining for elucidation of the synloph in trichostrongyle nematodes. J Parasitol.1995; 81(6): 1016-18.

Khrustalev AV, Hoberg EP. Carmine-propi-onic acid stain for elucidation of fine cellular structure in nematodes. J Parasitol. 1996; 82(1): 176--8.

Naem S, Pagan C, Nadler SA.Structural resto-ration of nematodes and acanthocephalans fixed in high percentage alcohol using DESS solution and rehydration. J Parasitol. 2010; 96(4): 809–11.

Sadjjadi SM, Massoud J. Helminth parasites of wild rodents in Khuzestan province, south west of Iran. J Vet Parasitol. 1999; 13:55-6.

Zibaei M, Sadjjadi SM, Sarkari B. Prevalence of Toxocara cati and other intestinal helminths in stray cats in Shiraz, Iran. Trop Biomed. 2007; 24(2):39-43.

Tanideh N , Sadjjadi SM , Mohammadzadeh T. Helminthic infections of laboratory animals in animal house of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and the potential risks of zoonotic in-fections for researchers. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2010; 12(2):151-7.

Yamaguti S. Systema Helminthum. New York: Interscience Publishers; 1958-1963. Vol.I-IV.

May HG. Killing, staining and mounting para-sitic nematodes. Trans Am Microsc Soc. 1922; 41(2): 103-5.

Grewal PS, Richardson PN, Wright DJ. Effects of killing, fixing and mounting methods on taxonomic characters of parthenogenetic adult female Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda: Rhab-ditidae). Revue Nématol. 1990; 13 (4): 437-44.

Grewal PS. The use of agar as a cover-glass support for mounting nematodes. Revue Né-matol. 1990; 13 (1): 121-2.

Sepulveda MS, Kinsella JM. Helminth collec-tion and identification from wildlife. J Vis Exp. 2013;(82):e51000.

Ryss AY. Express technique to prepare perma-nent collection slides of nematodes. Zoosyst Rossica. 2003; 11: 257-60.

Kumagai M, Inaba T, Makioka A, Ishiwata K,

Onishi K, Watanabe N. An improved glycerin- jelly mounting procedure for permanent prepa-rations of helminth eggs. J Parasitol. 2010 ; 96(2):440-1.

Bird AF. Changes associated with parasitism in nematodes. I. Morphology and physiology of preparasitic and parasitic larvae of Meloidogyne ja-vanica. J Parasitol. 1967; 53(4): 768-76.

Bird AF. Further observations on the structure of nematode cuticle. Parasitol. 1958; 48(1-2): 32-7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.