Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection in ICR Mice as a Model of Cerebral Malaria

  • R. Basir Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • SS. Fazalul-Rahiman Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • K. Hasballah Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, 23111 Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia.
  • WC. Chong Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • H. Talib Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • MF. Yam Pharmacology Discipline, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
  • M. Jabbarzare Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • TH. Tie Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • F. Othman Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • MAM. Moklas Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • WO. Abdullah Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Z. Ahmad Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Keywords: Animal model, Malaria, Plasmodium berghei, ICR mice

Abstract

Background: Animal models with various combination of host-parasite have long been employed to study malaria pathogenesis. Here, we describe the combination of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infec- tion in inbred ICR mice as a model of cerebral malaria (CM).Methods: Infection in mice was initiated by intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 107  (0.2ml) parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs).Results: This model can produce a severe degree of infection presented by the high degree of parasitaemia followed by death 6-7 days post infection. Severe anemia, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and discolourations of major organs were observed. Histopathological findings revealed several i m- portant features mimicking human CM including, microvascular sequestration of PRBCs in major organs, particularly in the brain, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the kupffer cells in the liver, pulmo- nary edema and hyaline membrane formation in the lungs and haemorrhages in the kidney’s medulla and cortex. Proinflammatory cytokines TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-18, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were all found to be elevated in the plasma of infected mice.Conclusion: This model can reproduce many of the important features of CM and therefore can be used as a tool to advance our understanding of the disease pathogenesis.

References

Druilhe P, Hagan P, Rook GAW. The importance of models of infection in the study of disease resistance. Trends Microbiol. 2002; 10(10): 38-46.

World Malaria Report 2011. http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/9789241564403_eng.pdf

Hunt NH, Grau GE. Cytokines: accelerators and brakes in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. Trends Immunol. 2003: 24(9): 491-499.

Combes V, de Souza JB, Renia L, Hunt NH, Grau GE. Cerebral malaria: which parasite? Which model? Drug Disc Today. 2005; 2(2): 141-147.

Berendt AR, Turner GDH, Newbold CI. Cerebral malaria: the sequestration hypothesis. Parasitol Today. 1994; 10(10): 412-414.

Clark IA, Rockett KA. The cytokine theory of human cerebral malaria. Parasitol Today. 1994; 10(10): 410-412.

Artavanis-Tsakonas K, Riley EM. Innate immune response to malaria: rapid inductionof IFNγ from human NK cells by live Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. J Immunol. 2002; 169(6): 2956-2963.

de Souza JB, Riley EM. Cerebral malaria: the contribution of studies in animal models to our understanding of immunopathogenesis. Microbes Infect. 2002; 4(3): 291-300.

Menendez C, Fleming AF, Alonso PL. Malaria- related anaemia. Parasitol Today. 2000; 16(11): 469-476.

Phillips RE, Looaresuwan S, Warrell DA, Lee SH, Karbwang J, Warrell MJ, White NJ, Swasdichi C, Weatherall DJ. The importance of anaemia in cerebral and uncomplicated falciparum malaria: role of complications, dyserythropoiesis and iron sequestration. The Quarterly J Med. 1986; 58(227): 305-323.

Davis TME, Krishna S, Looaresuwan S, Supararanond W, Pukrittayakamee S, Attatansoonthorn K, White NJ. Erythrocyte sequestration and anaemia in severe falciparum malaria. J Clin Invest. 1990; 86(3): 793-800.

Phillips RE, Pasvol G. Anaemia of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Bailliere Clin Haematol. 1992; 5(2): 315-330.

English M, Waruiru C, Marsh K. Transfusion of respiratory distress in life-threatening childhood malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996; 55(5): 525-530.

Jennings G, Elia M. Effect of E. coli endotoxin on temperature, oxygen consumption and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats and mice. Biosci. Reports. 1987; 7(6): 517-523.

Farthing MJG, Rolston DDK. Infectious diseases and tropical medicine. Clinical Medicine, Eds: P. J. Kumar, and M. L. Clark, Balliere Tindall, London. 1987. p. 75-77.

Bates I, Bedu-Addo G. Chronic malaria and splenic lymphoma: clues to understanding lymphoma evolution. Leukemia. 1997; 11(12): 2162-2167.

Boonpucknavig V, Sitprija V. Renal disease in acute P. falciparum infection in man. Kidney Int. 1979; 16(1): 44-52.

Bruce-Chwatt LJ. Essential malariology. William Heinemann medical books Ltd., London. pp. 10-12, 1980.

V. Houba, “Specific immunity: immunopathology and immunosuppression. In: Malaria. Principles and practice of malariology. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I, editors. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. 1.

Grau GE, Taylor TE, Molyneux ME, Wirima JJ,Vassalli P, Hommel M, Lambert PH. Tumour necrosis factor and disease severity in children with falciparum malaria. N Eng J Med. 1989; 320(24): 1586-1591.

Kwiatkowski D, Hill AV, Sambou I, Twumasi P, Castracane J, Manogue KR, Cerami A, Brewster DR, Greenwood BM. TNF concentration in tafal cerebral, non-fatal cereral, and umcomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lancet. 1990; 336(8725): 1201-1204.

Molyneux ME, Engelmann H, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ, Aderka D, Wallach D, Grau GE. Circulating plasma receptors for tumour necrosis factor in Malawian children with severe falciparum malaria. Cytokine. 1993; 5(6): 604-609.

Day NP, Hien TT, Schollaardt T, Loc PP, Chuong BV, Chau TT, Mai NT, Phu NH, Sinh DX, White NJ, Ho M. The prognosticand pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria. J Infect Dis. 1999; 180(4): 1288-1297.

Luty AJ, Lell B, Schmidt-Ott R, Lehman LG, Lubkner D, Greve B, Matousek P, Herbich K, Schmid D, Migot-Nabies F, Deloron P, Nussenzweig RS, Kremsner PG. Interferongamma responses are associated with resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum in young African children. J Infect Dis. 1999; 179(4): 980-988.

GrauGE, Frei K, Piguet PF, Fontana A, Heremans H, Billiau A, Vassali P, Lambert H. Interleukin 6 production in experimental cerebral malaria: modulation by anti-cytokineantibodies and possible role in hypergammaglobulinaemia. J Exp Med. 1990; 172(5): 1505-1508.

Kossodo S, Monso C, Juillard P, Velu T, Goldman M, Grau GE. Interleukin-10 modulates susceptibility in experimental cerebral malaria. Immunol. 1997: 91(4): 536-540.

Peyron F, Burdin N, Ringwald P, Vuillez P, Rousset F, Banchereau J. High levels of circulating IL-10 in human malaria. Clin ExpImmunol. 1994; 95(2): 300-303.

Sarthou JL, Angel G, Arisot G, Regier C,Dieye A, Toure BA. Prognostic value of antiPlasmodium falciparum-specific immunoglobulin G3, cytokines and their soluble receptors in West African patients with severe malaria. Infect Immun. 1997; 65(8): 3271-3276.

Kojima S, Nagamine Y, Hayano M, Looareesuwan S, Nakanishi K. A potential role of Interleukin- 18 in severe falciparum malaria. Acta Trop. 2004; 89(3): 279-284.

Feldman RM, Singer C. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and pulmonary fibrosis in falciparum malaria. Rev Infect Dis. 1987: 9(2): 134-139.

Bolandard F, Hommel D, Hulin A. Plasma exchange and severe P. falciparum malaria. Cahiers Anesthesiol. 1995; 43(4): 371-373.

Aikawa M, Suzuki M, Gutierrez Y. Pathology of malaria. In: Kreier JP, editors. Malaria. New York: Academic Press; 1980. p. 47-102.

Published
2015-10-13
How to Cite
1.
Basir R, Fazalul-Rahiman S, Hasballah K, Chong W, Talib H, Yam M, Jabbarzare M, Tie T, Othman F, Moklas M, Abdullah W, Ahmad Z. Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection in ICR Mice as a Model of Cerebral Malaria. Iran J Parasitol. 7(4):62-74.
Section
Original Article(s)