Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2016. 11(4):471-479.

Rodenticide Comparative Effect of Klerat® and Zinc Phosphide for Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Central Iran
Arshad VEYSI, Hassan VATANDOOST, Mohammad Reza YAGHOOBI-ERSHADI, Reza JAFARI, Mohammad Hossein ARANDIAN, Mostafa HOSSEINI, Reza FADAEI, Javad RAMAZANPOUR, Kamal HEIDARI, Ali SADJADI, Mohammad Reza SHIRZADI, Amir Ahmad AKHAVAN

Abstract


Background: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a neglected disease with public health importance that is common in many rural areas of Iran. In recent years, behavioral resistance and/or bait shyness against the common rodenticide among reservoir hosts of ZCL have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Klerat® and zinc phosphide against natural reservoir of ZCL.

Methods: This survey was carried out in four villages located 45 to 95 km far from Esfahan City Esfahan province, central Iran from April to November 2011. The rodent burrows were counted destroyed and reopened holes baited around all villages. Effect of rodent control operation on the main vector density and incidence of ZCL were evaluated.

Results: The reduction rate of rodent burrows after intervention calculated to be at 62.8% in Klerat® and 58.15% in zinc phosphide treated areas. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the densities of the vector in indoors and outdoors in intervention and control areas. The incidence of the disease between treated and control areas after intervention was statistically different (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: Klerat® could be a suitable alternative for zinc phosphide in a specific condition such as behavior resistance or occurrence of bait shyness.

Keywords


Iran; Klerat® Rodent control; Zinc phosphide; Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akhavan A. Immune Response of Great Gerbil against Phlebotomus papatasi Saliva. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken, Germany. 2011.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi M. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their role on Leishmania transmission. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2012;6(1):1-17.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Zahraei-Ramazani AR, Akhavan AA, Jalali-Zand AR, Abdoli H, Nadim A. Rodent control operations against zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural Iran. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25(4):309-12.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Akhavan A, Zahraei-Ramazani A, Javadian E, Motavalli-Emami M. Field trial for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniosis in Badrood, Iran. Ann Saudi. 2000;20(5/6):386-9.

Akhavan AA, Veysi A, Arandian M, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Hosseini M, Abdoli H, Heidari K, Sadjadi A, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Aminian K, Shirzadi MR, Jafari R. Field evaluation of phostoxin and zinc phosphide for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area, central Iran. J Vector Borne Dis. 2014;51(4):307-12.

Veysi A, Vatandoost H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Arandian M, Jafari R, Hosseini M, abdoli H, Rassi Y, Heidari K, Sadjadi A, Fadaei R, Ramazanpour J, Aminian K, Shirzadi MR, Akhavan AA. Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Coumavec® and Zinc Phosphide in Controlling Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Hyperendemic Focus in Central Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2012;6(1):18.

Akhavan AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Khamesipour A, Mirhendi H, Alimohammad ian M, Rassi Y, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Abdoli H, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Jalali-zand N. Dynamics of Leishmania infection rates in Rhombomys opimus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) population of an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2010;103(2):84-9.

Nadim A, Mesghali A, Amini H. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Isfahan province of Iran: III. The vector. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1968;62(4):543-9.

Yaghoobi-Ershadi M, Javadian E. Studies on sandflies in a hyperendemic area of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. ‎Indian J Med. Res. 1997;105:61-6.

Akhavan AA, Mirhendi H, Khamesipour A, Alimohammadian MH, Rassi Y, Bates P, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, Arandian MH, Abdoli H, Jalali-zand N, Jafari R, Shareghi N, Ghanei M, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR. Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126(4):552-6.

Killick‐Kendrick R. Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review. Med Vet Entomol. 1990;4(1):1-24.

Dejeux P. Information on the epidemiology and control of the leishmaniasis, by country or territory. Geneva. WHO; 1991.

Shirzadi M. Guideline for control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Department of Zoonosis, CDC, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran; 2010.

Shirzadi MR, Mollalo A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR. Dynamic Relations between Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climatic Factors in Golestan Province, Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2015;9(2):148-60.

Nadim A Amini H. The effect of antimalaria spraying on the transmission of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trop Geogr Med 1970;22(4):479–81.

Noazin S, Shirzadi MR, Kermanizadeh A, Yaghoobi-Ershadi M-R, Sharifi I. Effect of large-scale installation of deltamethrin-impregnated screens and curtains in Bam, a major focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013; 107(7):444-50.

Nadim A, Javadian E, Tahvildar-Bidruni G, Ghorbani M. Effectiveness of leishmanization in the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1983;76(4):377-83.

Gradoni L. Canine Leishmania vaccines: still a long way to go. Vet Parasitol. 2015;208(1):94-100.

Alvar J, Croft SL, Kaye P, Khamesipour A, Sundar S, Reed SG. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2013;31:B244-B9.

Eliseev L, Principles and methods of control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. USSR Ministry of Health and WHO Seminar on Control of Leishmaniases, Moscow; 1980.

Dergacheva I, Zherikhina I. Changes in the population density and species composition of Phlebotomidae as a result of eradication of great gerbils in a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Karshi Steppe. Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1980;49:50-5.

Veysi A, Vatandoost H, Arandian MH, Jafari R, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA. Laboratory Evaluation of a Rodenticide-insecticide, Coumavec®, against Rhombomys opimus, the Main Reservoir Host of Zoonotic Cutaneouse Leishmaniasis in Iran. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2013;7(2):188-93.

Smart J JK, Whittick RJ. Insects of medical importance. 4th ed. British Museum, Natural History: Adien press; 1965.

Theodor O, Mesghali A. On the phlebotominae of Iran. J Med Entomol. 1964;1(3):285-300.

Seyedi-Rashti M, Nadim A. The genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phl-ebotominae) of the countries of the eastern mediterranean region. Iran J Public Health. 1992;21(1-4):11-50.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.