In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Main Component, Berberine against Different Leishmania Species
Background: Leishmaniasis has been identified as a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial effects of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris also its active com-poenent, berberine against Leishmania tropica and L. infantum species on in vitro ex-periments.
Methods: In this study in vitro antileishmanial activity of various extracts of B. vul-garis also its active compoenent, berberine against promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica and L. infantum was evaluated, using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Furthermore, infectivity rate and cytotoxicity effects of B. vulgaris and berberine in murine macrophage cells were investigated.
Results: The findings of optical density (OD) and IC50 indicated that B. vulgaris particulary berberine significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of pro-mastigote stage of L.tropica and L.infantum in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA). In addition, B. vulgaris and berberine significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive con-trol. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Results also showed that when parasites were pre-incubated with B. vulgaris their ability to infect murine macrophages was significantly decreased.
Conclusion: B.vulgaris particularly berberine exhibited potent in vitro leishmanicid-al effects against L. tropica and L.infantum. Further works are required to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of B.vulgaris on Leishmania species using clinical settings.
World Health Organization. Control of the Leishmaniasis. Geneva: WHO (Technical Report Series 949) 2010; 5–12.
Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004; 27: 305–18.
Sharifi F, Sharifi I, Zarean M Parizi MH, Aflatoonian M, Harandi MF, et al. Spatial distribution and molecular identification of Leishmania species from endemic foci of South-eastern Iran. Iranian J Parasitol. 2012; 7(1): 45-52.
Mahmoudvand H, Mohebali M, Sharifi I, Keshavarz H , Hajjaran H , Akhoundi B, et al. Epidemiological aspects of visceral leishmania-sis in Baft district, Kerman province, Southeast of Iran. Iranian J Parasitol 2011; 6(1): 1-11.
Mohebali M. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features. Iranian J Parasitol. 2013; 8(3): 348-58
Kedzierski L, Sakthianandeswaren A, Curtis JM, Andrews PC, Junk PC, Kedzierska K. Leishmaniasis: current treatment and prospects for new drugs and vaccines. Current Med Chem. 2009;16 (5): 599–614.
Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microb Rev. 2006; 19(1):11–26.
Hadighi R, Mohebali M, Boucher P, Hajjaran H, Khamesipour A, Ouellette M. Unrespon-siveness to Glucantime treatment in Iranian cu-taneous leishmaniasis due to drug-resistant Leishmania tropica parasites. PLoS Med. 2006 ; 3(5): e162. 659- 67.
Santos DO, Coutinho CE, Madeira MF, Bottino CG, Vieira RT, Nascimento SB, et al. Leishmaniasis treatment – a challenge that remains: a review. Parasitol Res. 2004; 103: 1–10.
Pour R, Sharifi I, Kazemi B, Zarean M. Identification of nonresponsive isolates to glucantime in patients with cutaneous lei-shmaniasis in Bam. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2011; 18(2):123–33.
Rocha LG, Almeida JR, Macedo RO, Barbosa-Filho JM. A review of natural products with antileishmanial activity. Phytomedicine. 2005; 12: 514-35.
Imanshahidi H, Hosseinzadeh H. Phar-macological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, Berberine. Phytother Res. 2008; 22: 999–1012.
Ivanovska N, Philipov S. Study of the anti-inflammatory action of Berberis vulgaris root extract, alkaloid fractions and pure alkaloids. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1996;18: 553–61.
Küpeli E, Koar M, Yeilada E, Hüsnü K, Baer C. A comparative study on the anti-inflamma-tory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of isoquinoline alkaloids from the roots of Turkish Berberis species. Life Sci. 2002; 72: 645–57. 15. Nakamoto K, Sadamori S, Hamada T. Effects of crude drugs and berberine hydrochloride on the activities of fungi. J Prosthet Dent. 1990; 64(6): 691-4.
Freile ML, Giannini F, Pucci G, Sturniolo A, Rodero L, Pucci O, et al. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts and of berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla. Fitoterapia. 2003; 74: 702–5.
Ghaderi R, Maleki Nejad P. evaluation of anti-candidal effects of Berberis Vulgaris root extracts (methanolic and aqueous) and comparing their effects with those clotrimazole. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2006;13(2): 42-8.
Vennerstrom JL, Lovelace JK, Waits VB, Hanson WL, Klayman DL. Berberine der-ivatives as anti-leishmanial drugs. Antimicrob Agent Chemother. 2005; 34(5):198-211.
Kaneda Y, Torii M, Tanaka T, Aikawa M. In vitro effects of berberine sulphate on the growth and structure of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1991; 85: 417–25.
Shokri A, Sharifi I, Khamesipour A, Nakhaee N, Fasihi Harandi M, Nosratabadi J, et al. The effect of verapamil on in vitro susceptibility of promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica to meglumine antimoniate. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(3): 1113-17.
Garcia M, Monzote L, Scull R, Herrera P. Activity of Cuban plants extracts against Leishmania amazonensis. ISRN Pharmacol. 2012; 104540. doi: 10.5402/2012/104540. Epub 2012 Mar 15.
Weninger B, Robledo S, Arango GJ, Deharo E, Arango R, Munoz V, et al. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants. J Eth-nopharmacol. 2001; 78: 193-200.
Cowan MM. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin Microb Rev. 1999; 12: 564–82.
McCutcheon AR, Ellis SM, Hancock RE, Tower GN. Antibiotic screening of medicinal plants of the British Columbian native peoples. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 37: 213– 23.
Khadem Erfan MB, Mohebali M , Kazemi-Rad E, Hajjaran H, Edrissian GH, Mamishi S, et al. Downregulation of calcineurin gene is as-sociated with Glucantime® resiatance in Leish-mania infantum. Iranian J Parasitol. 2013; 8(3): 359-66.
Kazemi-Rad E, Mohebali M, Khadem-Erfan MB, Saffari M , Raoofian R, Hajjaran H, et al. Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach. Exp Parasitol. 2013; 135: 344–9.
Fata A, Rakhshandeh H, Berenji F, Jalalifard A. treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in murine model by alcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris. Iranian J Parasitol. 2006; 1(1): 39-42.
Sheng WD, Jiddawi MS, Hong XQ, Abdulla SM. Treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria using pyrimethamine in combination with berberine, tetracycline or cotrimoxazole. East Afr Med J. 1997; 74: 283-4.
Peychev L. Pharmacological investigation on the cardiovascular effects of Berberis vulgaris on tested animals. Pharmacia. 2005; 52: 118–21.
Lin CC, Ng LT, Hsu FF, Shieh DE, Chiang LC. Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukaemia cell growth. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004; 31: 65–9.
|Issue||Vol 9 No 1 (2014)|
|Berberine Berberis vulgaris In vitro Leishmania infantum Leishmania tropica|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|