A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica) (Phocidae, Mammalia) Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda).
AbstractBackground: Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) levels. Methods: The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species. Results: P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had mul-tiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exem-plified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Par-asite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue. Conclusion: It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered spe-cies; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.
Khuraskin LS, Rumyanster VD. New data on the mortality of the Caspian seal due to wolves. Congress of the All-Union teriological society, 2nd (P. A. Panteleer et al eds.) Nauka, Moscow, USSR, ZR. 1978; 116(19): 5669.
Miyazaki N. A review of studies on the ringed, Caspian, and Baikal Seals (Pusa hispida, P. caspica, and P. sibirica). Otsuchi Mar Sci. 2001; 26: 1-6.
Sharipov R. Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica Gmelin, 1788) and it current status in the Caspian Sea. J Black Sea/Med Environ. 2012; 18(3): 350-359.
Harkonen T, Jüssi M, Baimukanov M, Bignert A, Dmitrieva L, Kasimbekov Y, Verevkin M, Wilson S, Goodman SJ. Pup production and breeding distribution of the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica) in relation to human impacts. Ambio. 2008; 37(5): 356-361.
Härkönen T. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Pusa caspica. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. . Downloaded on 04 November 2013.
Kurochkin YV. Parasites of the Caspian seal, Pusa caspica. Rapp. P.V. Reun. Cons Int Explor Mer. 1975; 119:363-365.
Eslami A, Kiai B. A report on the parasitic infections in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) of southern part of Caspian sea. Vet J of Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch. 2009; 5(1): 31-33.
Schuster R, Bonin J, Staubach C, Heidrich R. Liver fluke (Opisthorchiidae) findings in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the eastern part of theFederal State Brandenburg, Germany – A con-tribution to the epidemiology of opisthorchi-idosis. Parasitol. Res. 1999; 85:142-146.
Gorski P, Lakomy M, Zalewski A. Parasites of carnivorous mammals in Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Wiad Parazytol. 2006; 52: 49-53.
Hawkins CJ, Caffery JM, Stewart P, Lawton C. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vi-son) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland. Parasitol Res. 2010; 107(4):993-997.
Simpson VR, Tomlinson AJ, Molenaar FM. Prevalence, distribution and pathological signif-icance of the bile fluke Pseudamphistomum trun-catum in Eurasian Otters (Lutra lutra) in Great Britain. Vet Rec. 2009; 164(13): 397-401.
Simpson VR, Gibbons LM, Khalil LF, Wil-liams JLR. Cholecystitis in Otters (Lutra lutra) and Mink (Mustela vison) caused by the fluke Pseudoamphistomum truncatum. Vet Rec. 2005; 157(2): 49-52.
Forsyth MA, Kennedy S, Wilson S, Eybator T, Barrett T. Canine Distemper Virus in a Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica). Vet Rec. 1998; 143(24): 662-664.
Kennedy S, Kuiken T, Jepson PD, Deaville R, Forsyth M, Barrett T, Van de Bildt MW, Oster-haus AD, Eybatov T, Duck C, Kydyrmanov A, Mitrofanov I, Wilson S. Mass Die-Off of Cas-pian seals caused by Canine Distemper Virus emerging infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000; 6(6): 637-639.
Scholz T. Family Opisthorchiidae Looss, 1899. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A, editors. Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 3. Wallingford: CAB International; 2008. p. 509–522.
Anderson RC, Chabanaud AG, Willmott S. (Eds) Keys to the nematode parasites of verte-brates: Archival volume. 480 pp. New York: CAB International; 2009.
Petrochenko VI. Acanthocephala of domestic and wild animals. Isdatel’stvo Akad Nauk SSSR, Moscow; 1958. English translation by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971. p. 478.
Bancroft JD, Gamble M. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Publishers; 2001.
Kienan VA. Histological and Histochemical Methods, Theory and Practice. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2002.
Lee RE. Scanning electron Microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs; 1992.
Heckmann RA, Halajian A. Ultrastructural study of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Opisthorchidae Trematoda) from the Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica) (Phocidae, Mamma-lia) using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDXA). Sci Parasitol. 2012; 13(3): 101-108.
Amin OM, Heckmann RA, Halajian A, El-Naggar AM. The morphology of an unique population of Corynosoma strumosum (Acantho-cephala, Polymorphidae) from the Caspian Seal, Pusa caspica, in the land-locked Caspian Sea using SEM, with special notes on histopathol-ogy. Acta Parasitol. 2011; 56(4): 438-445.
Copyright (c) Iranian Journal of Parasitology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.