Detection of Lophomonas blattarum (Order: Hypermastigida) from Iranian Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common allergic diseases triggered by indoor and outdoor allergens. Certain arthropods, such as mites and cockroaches, contain protozoa like Lophomonas blattarum in their intestines to help with digestion that may have some role in AR. We aimed to determine the frequency of L. blattarum in nasal smears of patients with AR in comparison with healthy controls.
Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study (March 2015-March 2016), 36 patients with a clinical presentation of AR (with a positive prick test including mites) and 34 normal controls were included at ear, nose, and throat (ENT) clinic at Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Nasal secretions were evaluated to examine presence of L. blattarum in the patients and control group by direct method. Diagnosis of L. blattarum was based on microscopic observation both on direct smear and Giemsa stained specimens.
Results: Patients with AR had a higher frequency of L. blattarum in their nasal smears than the control group (25% vs. 2.9%) (P=0.001).
Conclusion: We found L. blattarum more frequently in the nasal secretion of AR patients compared with healthy subjects; this protozoon may have some role in this condition. However, the relationship between L. blattarum and AR requires further studies to allow a greater understanding.
2. Xia Y. Hypermastigote found in the sputum of a patient with asthma. Chinese J Parasitol Parasit Dis. 1997;15(15):417.
3. Martínez-Girón R, van Woerden H, Ribas-Barceló A. Could inhaled mite faeces introduce pathogens to the lungs? Microbes and Infection. 2008;4(10):452-3.
4. Martínez‐Girón R. House dust mite protozoon on a nasal smear in a case of allergic rhinitis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009;37(7):544-5.
5. Iwamura C, Nakayama T. Toll-like receptors in the respiratory system: their roles in inflammation. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8(1):7-13.
6. Buret AG. Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalis. Parasite. 2008;15(3):261-5.
7. Costa RF, Souza Wd, Benchimol M, Alderete JF, Morgado-Diaz JA. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells. Cell Res. 2005;15(9):704-16.
8. Mirzazadeh F, Berenji F, Amini M, et al. Lophomonas blattarum in asthmatic patients and control group. J Res Med Dental Sci. 2017;5(5):1-5.
9. Berenji F, Hosseini Farash BR, Talebian M, et al. Different Staining Methods in Diagnosing Lophomonas blattarum in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples. Journal of Patient Safety & Quality Improvement. 2021;9(4):245-9.
10. Berenji F, Fata A, Vakili V, et al. Unexpected high rate of Lophomonas blattarum in resistant upper and lower respiratory infection. Health Sci. 2016;5(9):74-80.
11. Martínez-Girón R, Doganci L. Lophomonas blattarum: a bronchopulmonary pathogen. Acta Cytol. 2010;54(5):1050-1.
12. Wang H, Zhang J, Shu M. Blattarum lophomoniasis of the maxillary sinuses. Chin J Otorhinolaryngol Integr Med. 1998;6:170-2.
13. Guozhong Y. Bronchopulmonary infection with Lophomonas blattarum: two cases report and literature review. Journal of Medical Colleges of PLA. 2008;23(3):176-82.
14. Berenji F, Parian M, Fata A, Bakhshaee M, Fattahi F. First case report of sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2016;2016: 2614187.
15. Jorjani O, Bahlkeh A, Koohsar F, Talebi B, Bagheri A. Chronic respiratory allergy caused by Lophomonas blattarum: a case report. Med Lab J. 2018;12(2):44-6.
16. Parsel SM, Riley CA, McCoul ED. Combat zone exposure and respiratory tract disease. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2018; 8(8): 964-9.
|Issue||Vol 17 No 4 (2022)|
|Rhinitis Allergic Allergens Arthropods Nasal cavity Lophomonas blattarum|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|