Role of Adenosine Deaminase in Patients with Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea and Demodex folliculorum Positivity
Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an aminohydrolase involved in the catabolism of purine nucleotides and irreversibly deaminizes adenosine and deoxyadenosine to inosine and deoxyinosine. ADA enzyme deficiency results in the loss of functional properties of B and T lymphocytes. Demodex species have been reported to be transmitted between humans through close contact and to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea, acne vulgaris, perioral dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, micropapillary-pruritic dermatitis and blepharitis. The present study aimed to compare serum ADA levels in D. folliculorum positive patients with the healthy control individuals.
Methods: Serum ADA levels were examined for 30 patients diagnosed with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and 40 healthy individuals in Malatya Inonu University in 2017. Standardized skin surface biopsy (SSSB) method was used to diagnose D. folliculorum. A significant decrease was found in the ADA levels of Demodex-positive rosacea patients when compared to the control group.
Results: ADA levels were decreased in the Demodex-positive group. The mean ADA level in patient group was significantly lower than the mean in the control group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of age and gender.
Conclusion: During and after treatment of Demodex-positive rosacea patients, determination of ADA levels may give more detailed information on the immune mechanisms.
2. Norn MS. Demodex folliculorum. Incidence, regional distribution, pathogenicity. Dan Med Bull. 1971;18(1):14-7.
3. Basta-Juzbasic A, Subic JS, Ljubojevic S. Demodex folliculorum in development of dermatitis rosaceiformis steroidica and rosacea-related diseas-es. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20(2):135-40.
4. Aylesworth R, Vance C. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis in cutaneous biopsies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1982:7(5):583-9.
5. Erbagci Z, Ozgoztasi O. The significance of Demo-dex folliculorum density in rosacea. Int J Dermatol. 1998:37(6):421-5.
6. Marks R, Dawber RPR. Skin surface biopsy: an improved technique for the examination of the horny layer. Br J Dermatol. 1971;84(2):117-23.
7. Morsy TA, Fayad ME, Morsy AT, et al. Demodex folliculorum causing pathological lesions in immuno-competent children. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2000;30(3):851-4.
8. Pena GP, Andrade Filho JS. Is Demodex really non-pathogenic? Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2000;42(3):171-3.
9. Baima B, Sticherling M. Demodicidosis revisited. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82(1):3-6.
10. Akilov OE, Mumcuoglu KY. Association between human demodicosis and HLA class I. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28(1):70-3.
11. Akilov OE, Mumcuoglu KY. Immune response in demodicosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol. Venereol 2004;18(4):440-4.
12. Vollmer RT. Demodex-associated folliculitis. Am J Dermatopathol. 1996;18(6):589-91.
13. Ellis G, Goldberg DM. A reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide--linked kinetic assay for aden-osine deaminase activity. J Lab Clin Med. 1970;76(3):507-17.
14. Aldrich MB, Blackburn MR, Kellems RE. The importance of adenosine deaminase for lympho-cyte development and function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272(2):311-5.
15. Rios-Yuil JM, Mercadillo-Perez P. Evaluation of Demodex folliculorum as a Risk Factor for the Diagno-sis of Rosacea In Skin Biopsies. Mexico's General Hospital (1975-2010). Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(2):157.
16. Wesolowska M, Baran W, Szepietowski J, et al. [Demodicidosis in humans as a current problem in dermatology]. Wiad Parazytol. 2005;51(3):253-6.
17. Jansen T, Kastner U, Kreuter A, et al. Rosacea-like demodicidosis associated with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(1):139-42.
18. Kose K, Utas S, Yazici C, et al. Effect of propylthi-ouracil on adenosine deaminase activity and thyroid function in patients with psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(6):1121-6.
19. Giblett ER, Anderson JE, Cohen F, et al. Adeno-sine-deaminase deficiency in two patients with se-verely impaired cellular immunity. Lancet. 1972;2(7786):1067-9.
20. Hitoglou S, Hatzistilianou M, Gougoustamou D, et al. Adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzyme pattern in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2001;20(6):411-6.
21. Erkilic K, Evereklioglu C, Cekmen M, et al. Adeno-sine deaminase enzyme activity is increased and negatively correlates with catalase, superoxide dis-mutase and glutathione peroxidase in patients with Behçet's disease: original contributions/clinical and laboratory investigations. Mediators Inflamm. 2003;12(2):107-16.
22. Poursharifi P, Saghiri R, Ebrahimi-Rad M, et al. Adenosine deaminase in patients with primary im-munodeficiency syndromes: the analysis of serum ADA1 and ADA2 activities. Clin Biochem. 2009;42(13-14):1438-43.
23. Tripathi K, Kumar R, Bharti K, et al. Adenosine deaminase activity in sera of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in India. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;388(1-2):135-8.
24. Karaman U, Kiran TR, Colak C. Adenosine deami-nase level in the serum of the patients Toxoplasma gondii seropositive and Giardia intestinalis. Afr J Mi-crobiol Res. 2009;3(10):654-7.
25. Chen W, Plewig G. Human demodicosis: revisit and a proposed classification. Br J Dermatol. 2014;170(6):1219-25.
26. Tisma VS, Basta-Juzbasic A, Dobric I, et al. Eti-opathogenesis, classification, and current trends in treatment of rosacea. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2003;11(4):236-46.
27. Roihu T, Kariniemi AL. Demodex mites in acne rosacea. J Cutan Pathol. 1998;25(10):550-2.
28. Jarmuda S, McMahon F, Zaba R, et al. Correlation between serum reactivity to Demodex-associated Ba-cillus oleronius proteins, and altered sebum levels and Demodex populations in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients. J Med Microbiol. 2014;63(Pt 2):258-62.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.