Serum Tyrosine Level in Acute Murine Toxoplasmosis
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This global infectious disease has been associated with behavioral changes in rodents and can result in humans' neuropsychiatric symptoms. Since the neurotransmitters alteration can cause a behavioral change, in this study, tyrosine level, as a precursor of dopamine, was evaluated in acute murine toxoplasmosis during 2015 and 2016 in Shiraz, Iran.
Methods: At the first, 105 tachyzoites of T. gondii were subcutaneously inoculated to 50 BALB/c mice as experimental groups and 10 mice inoculated by PBS considered as the control group. After that, daily, one group of mice was bled, and sera were collected. Then, their serum tyrosine level was evaluated by HPLC method.
Results: After data analysis, the maximum mean serum tyrosine level was seen at 2th day of post parasite inoculation (0.0194 mg/ ml), with a significant difference compared to the control group (0.0117 mg/ ml, P=0.025). Moreover, the least quantity of serum tyrosine (0.076 mg/ml) was seen on the 5th day, after parasite inoculation, however, no significant difference was seen.
Conclusion: Serum tyrosine level increased in 2 d after inoculation of Toxoplasma, but the level regularly decreased in successive days. Tyrosine level increased by phenylalanine hydroxylase 2 days after inoculation, then tyrosine decreased by tyrosine hydroxylase in the next days. Toxoplasma tyrosine hydroxylase enzymes, at primary days of toxoplasmosis, effect on tyrosine production, and after that, the most effect on tyrosine consumption.
2. Dunn D, Wallon M, Peyron F, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: risk estimates for clinical counselling. Lancet. 1999;353(9167):1829-33.
3. Weiss LM, Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39(8):895-901.
4. Flegr J. How and why Toxoplasma makes us crazy. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29(4):156-63.
5. Fekadu A, Shibre T, Cleare AJ. Toxoplasmosis as a cause for behavior disorders-overview of evidence and mechanisms. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2010;57(2):105-13.
6. Alipour A, Shojaee S, Mohebali M, et al. Toxoplasma infection in schizophrenia patients: a comparative study with control group. Iran J Parasitol. 2011;6(2):31-37.
7. Torrey EF, Bartko JJ, Lun Z-R, et al. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33(3):729-36.
8. Chegeni TN, Sarvi S, Amouei A, et al. Relationship between toxoplasmosis and obsessive compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis . 2019;13(4):e0007306.
9. Torres L, Robinson S-A, Kim D-G, et al. Toxoplas-ma gondii alters NMDAR signaling and induces signs of Alzheimer’s disease in wild-type, C57BL/6 mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2018;15(1):57.
10. Bayani M, Riahi SM, Bazrafshan N, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk of Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis on observational studies. Acta Trop. 2019; 196: 165-171.
11. Henriquez S, Brett R, Alexander J, et al. Neuropsy-chiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection. Neu-roimmunomodulation. 2009;16(2):122-33.
12. Zhu S. Psychosis may be associated with toxo-plasmosis. Med Hypotheses. 2009;73(5):799-801.
13. Gaskell EA, Smith JE, Pinney JW, et al. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS One. 2009;4(3):e4801.
14. Nikam SS, Awasthi AK. Evolution of schizophre-nia drugs: a focus on dopaminergic systems. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;9(1):37-46.
15. Miman O, Kusbeci OY, Aktepe OC, et al. The probable relation between Toxoplasma gondii and Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2010;475(3):129-31.
16. National Research Council. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academies Press (US); 2010: 10.17226/12910.
17. Paulino J, Vitor R. Experimental congenital toxo-plasmosis in Wistar and Holtzman rats. Parasite. 1999;6(1):63-6.
18. Asgari Q, Keshavarz H, Shojaee S, et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Potential of RH Strain of Toxoplasma gondii (Type I) in Tissue Cyst Forming. Iran J Parasi-tol. 2013;8(3):367-75.
19. Webster JP, McConkey GA. Toxoplasma gondii-altered host behaviour: clues as to mechanism of action. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2010;57(2):95-104.
20. Mahmoudvand H, Sheibani V, Shojaee S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection potentiates cognitive im-pairments of Alzheimer's disease in the BALB/c mice. J Parasitol. 2016;102(6):629-35.
21. Dalimi A, Abdoli A. Latent toxoplasmosis and hu-man. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7(1):1-17.
22. Berenreiterová M, Flegr J, Kuběna AA, et al. The distribution of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain of a mouse with latent toxoplasmosis: implications for the behavioral manipulation hypothesis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28925.
23. Wang ZT, Harmon S, O'Malley KL, et al. Reas-sessment of the role of aromatic amino acid hy-droxylases and the effect of infection by Toxoplasma gondii on host dopamine. Infect Immun. 2015;83(3):1039-47.
24. Babaie J, Sayyah M, Fard‐Esfahani P, et al. Contri-bution of dopamine neurotransmission in procon-vulsant effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection in male mice. J Neurosci Res. J Neurosci Res. 2017;95(10):1894-905.
25. Parlog A, Schlüter D, Dunay IR. Toxoplasma gondii‐induced neuronal alterations. Parasite Immu-nol. 2015;37(3):159-70.
26. Prandovszky E, Gaskell E, Martin H, et al. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases do-pamine metabolism. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23866.
27. Afonso C, Paixão VB, Klaus A, et al. Toxoplasma-induced changes in host risk behaviour are inde-pendent of parasite-derived AaaH2 tyrosine hy-droxylase. Sci Rep . 2017;7(1):13822.
28. Lindová J, Novotná M, Havlíček J, et al. Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by la-tent toxoplasmosis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36(14):1485-92.
29. Carruthers VB, Suzuki Y. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the brain. Schizophr Bull. 2007;33(3):745-51.
30. Papa I, Saliba D, Ponzoni M, et al. T FH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in ger-minal centers. Nature. 2017;547(7663):318-323.
31. Armando I, Jezova M, Bregonzio C, et al. Angio-tensin II AT1 and AT2 Receptor Types Regulate Basal and Stress‐Induced Adrenomedullary Cate-cholamine Production through Transcriptional Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:302-9.
32. Stibbs H. Changes in brain concentrations of cate-cholamines and indoleamines in Toxoplasma gondii in-fected mice. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1985;79(2):153-7.
33. Gatkowska J, Wieczorek M, Dziadek B, et al. Sex-dependent neurotransmitter level changes in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected mice. Exp Parasitol. 2013;133(1):1-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.