Fe3O4@Bio-MOF Nanoparticles Combined with Artemisinin, Glucantime®, or Shark Cartilage Extract on Iranian Strain of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER): An In-Vitro and In-Vivo Study
Background: In the present study, we examined the effects of Fe3O4@bio-MOF nanoparticle (Nano-FO) plus artemisinin (Art) and glucantime (Glu) or shark cartilage extract (ShCE) on Leishmania major in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the laboratory of Department of Parasitology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran during 2016-2017. The promastigote and amastigote assays were performed were conducted at the presence of 3.12- 400 µg/mL of the drug combinations. According to in vitro IC50 results, the combinations of 12.5µg/mL Nano-FO with 25 µg/mL Art as well as 200 µg/mL Glu and 0.5 mL of 20 mg/kg of ShCE were used to treat BALB/c mice. During and at the end of the treatment, the lesion sizes were measured. Parasite loads, cytokine levels were evaluated at the end of the treatment.
Results: The IC50 of Fe3O4@bio-MOF-Artemisinin (Nano-FO/Art), Fe3O4@bio-MOF-Glucantime (Nano-FO/Glu), and Fe3O4@bio-MOF-Shark cartilage extract (Nano-FO/ShCE) on promasitigotes were 12.58±0.12, 235±0.17, and 18.54±0.15, respectively. These results on amastigotes were 10.32±0.01, 187±0.03, and 338±0.07 µg/mL, respectively. The apoptosis percentage of these combinations were 32.54%, 20.59%, and 15.68% in promastigotes and 15.68%, 12.84%, and 3.51% in infected macrophages, respectively with no toxicity on uninfected macrophages. In vivo results showed that the size of lesions significantly decreased against all drugs combinations, but Nano-FO/Art combination with Selectivity Index of 23.62 value was safe, and more effective on healing of lesions than other drugs combinations (P=0.003).
Conclusion: This study suggested that Nano-FO/Art combination can be considered as an anti-leishmania combination therapy in CL induced by L. major.
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