Immunoregulatory Effects of Somatic Extract of Toxocara canis on Airway Inflammations in Murine Model
Background: The immunomodulatory role of many parasites is well-documented. The current study designed to assess the immunoregulatory effects of the somatic extract (SE) of Toxocara canis on murine model of airway inflammations.
Methods: The experiment was performed in department of parasitology of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran from November 2018 to May 2019. Totally 30 female BALB/c mice divided into one control group and two experimental groups (10 mice in each group). The ovalbumin (OVA) group was sensitized with OVA in alum, while the SE group was administered with SE and OVA in alum intraperitoneally. The control group was injected with PBS in alum. Then, SE and OVA groups were intranasally challenged with OVA for three consecutive days and the control group encountered with PBS at the same time. One day after the last challenge, real-time PCR and histopathology survey were conducted on isolated lung tissues.
Results: The gene expression of IL-25, IL-33, TNF-α and TLR-4 in SE group was significantly lower than OVA group (P<0.05). The level of IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ were considerably higher than the OVA group (P<0.05). The inflammation was reduced in SE group, as the total cell number of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was less than OVA group. Based on the histopathology findings the inflammation was decreased in SE group compared to the OVA group.
Conclusion: Although, an inhibitory effect of SE of T. canis on airway inflammations was detected, there is still a long way ahead regarding the indication of the precise mechanisms.
2. Eslahi AV, Badri M, Khorshidi A, et al. Prevalence of Toxocara and Toxascaris infection among human and animals in Iran with meta-analysis approach. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):20.
3. Zibaei M, Uga S. Modified method to enhanced recovery of Toxocara cati larvae for the purposes of diagnostic and therapeutic. Exp Parasitol. 2016;169:107-110.
4. Vafae Eslahi A, Kia EB, Mobedi I, et al. Road killed carnivores illustrate the status of zoonotic hel-minthes in caspian sea littoral of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2017; 12(2):230-235.
5. Masoli M, Fabian D, Holt S, et al. The global bur-den of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report. Allergy. 2004; 59(5):469–478.
6. Robinson DS. Th-2 cytokines in allergic disease. Br Med Bull. 2000;56(4):956–968.
7. Arinola GO, Oluwole O, Oladokun R, et al. Intes-tinal Helminthic Infection Increases Serum Levels of IL-2 and Decreases Serum TGF-Beta Levels in Nigerian Asthmatic Patients. Open J Immunol. 2014; 4(1):1–8.
8. Taghipour A, Bahadory S, Badri M, et al. A system-atic review and meta-analysis on the co-infection of Helicobacter pylori with intestinal parasites: public health issue or neglected correlation? Int J Environ Health Res. 2020;1–11.
9. Taghipour A, Mosadegh M, Kheirollahzadeh F, et al. Are intestinal helminths playing a positive role in tuberculosis risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019; 14(10):e0223722.
10. Chookami MB, Sharafi SM, Sefiddashti RR, et al. Effect of two hydatid cyst antigens on the growth of melanoma cancer in C57/black mice. J Parasit Dis. 2016; 40(4):1170-1173.
11. Elliott DE, Weinstock J V. Helminth-host immu-nological interactions: Prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012; 1247(1):83–96.
12. Zibaei M, Ghorbani B. Toxocariasis and multiple sclerosis: A case-control study in Iran. Neurol Asia. 2014;19(3):283–286.
13. Yazdanbakhsh M, van den Biggelaar A, Maizels RM. Th2 responses without atopy: immunoregula-tion in chronic helminth infections and reduced al-lergic disease. Trends Immunol. 2001; 22(7):372–377.
14. B Badley JE, Grieve RB, Bowman DD, et al. Anal-ysis of Toxocara canis larval excretory-secretory anti-gens: physicochemical characterization and anti-body recognition. J Parasitol. 1987; 73(3):593–600.
15. Becker M, Reuter S, Friedrich P, et al. Genetic variation determines mast cell functions in experi-mental asthma. J Immunol. 2011; 186(12):7225–7231.
16. Von Mutius E. Allergies, infections and the hygiene hypothesis--the epidemiological evidence. Immun-obiology. 2007;212(6):433–439.
17. Mcconchie BW, Norris HH, Bundoc VG, et al. Ascaris suum-derived products suppress mucosal al-lergic inflammation in an interleukin-10-independent manner via interference with dendritic cell function. Infect Immun. 2006; 74(12):6632–6641.
18. Kennedy MW, Qureshi F, Fraser EM, et al. Anti-genic relationships between the surface-exposed, secreted and somatic materials of the nematode parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Ascaris suum, and Toxocara canis. Clin Exp Immunol.1989;75(3):493-500.
19. Cooper PJ. Intestinal worms and human allergy. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26(11-12):455-467.
20. Shirvan SP, Ebrahimby A, Dousty A, et al. Somatic extracts of Marshallagia marshalli downregulate the Th2 associated immune responses in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. Parasit Vectors 2017;10(1):233.
21. Zaiss MM, Maslowski KM, Mosconi I, et al. IL-1β suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(8):e1003531.
22. Smits HH, Yazdanbakhsh M. Chronic helminth infections modulate allergen-specific immune re-sponses: Protection against development of allergic disorders? Ann Med. 2007;39(6):428-439.
23. Kuroda E, Yoshida Y, Shan BE, et al. Suppression of macrophage interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α production in mice infected with Toxocara canis. Parasite Immunol. 2001;23(6):305-311.
24. Jin Y, Wi HJ, Choi MH, et al. Regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β in mouse dendritic cells through treatment with Clonorchis sinensis crude antigen. Exp Mol Med. 2014;46(1):e74.
25. Fenoy IM, Chiurazzi R, Sánchez VR, et al. Toxo-plasma gondii Infection Induces Suppression in a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43420.
26. Pandey SP, Doyen N, Mishra GC, et al. TLR9-deficiency reduces TLR1, TLR2 and TLR3 expres-sions in Leishmania major-infected macrophages. Exp Parasitol.2015. 2015;154:82-86.
27. Tauer JT, Abdullah S, Rauch F. Effect of Anti-TGF-β Treatment in a Mouse Model of Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta. J Bone Miner Res. 2019;34(2):207-214.
28. He JJ, Ma J, Song HQ, et al. Transcriptomic analy-sis of global changes in cytokine expression in mouse spleens following acute Toxoplasma gondii in-fection. Parasitol Res. 2016;115(2):703-712.
|Issue||Vol 15 No 4 (2020)|
|Immunoregulation Toxocara canis Airway inflammations Mice model Gene expression Histopathology|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|