Experimentally Induced Cerebral Cystic Echinococcosis in Rats: A Suitable Animal Model for Cerebral Echinococcosis
Background: Echinococcus granulosus is a worldwide zoonotic cestode that lives mainly in the intestine of dog as definitive host. Its larval stage infects intermediate hosts and forms hydatid cysts mainly in the liver and lungs tissues and less other organs such as brain, eye and bone. In the experimental models, inoculation of protoscoleces into the peritoneum, thoracic cavity, subcutaneous and cerebrum produces hydatid cysts. Experimental echinococcosis in the animal models provides a good opportunity for study of the parasite-host relationship, different transmission ways of infection in the intermediate hosts and effect of new drugs.
Methods: The present study was conducted in the Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran in 2018. In this study, cerebral hydatidosis was investigated in 6 female Wistar rats weighing (200±20 gr). For this purpose, protoscoleces were collected from hydatid cysts of infected sheep liver. Overall, 300 protoscolices were injected directly in the lateral ventricle by an insulin syringe through the implanted cannula.
Results: After 4 months of inoculation, multiple thin-walled, transparent hydatid cysts were observed in the rat skull. All cysts were infertile. The cysts were localized prominently on the cerebral cortex and lesser in the parenchyma and ventricles. The cyst walls consisted of three layers consist of the outer layer (fibrous capsule), two parasitic layers and the endocyst layer (germinal layer). The cyst was surrounded by the inflammatory cells consist of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first experimental cerebral hydatidosis arisen from larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus in the animal model.
2. Eckert J, Deplazes P. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects ofechinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17: 107–135.
3. Fotiadis C, Sergiou C, Kirou J, et al. Experimental echinococcus infection in the mouse model: per-cystic cellular immunity reaction and effects on the lymphoid organs of immunocompetent and thy-mectomized mice. In Vivo. 1999; 13(6): 541-546.
4. Kires DA，Karabacakoglu A, Odev K, Kara-kose S. Uncommon locations of hydatid cysts. Acta Ra-diol. 2003; 44: 622-636.
5. Tatli M, Guzel A, Altinors N. Large primary cere-bral hydatid cysts in children. Neurosci. 2006;11: 318-321.
6. Tyagi DK, Balasubramaniam S, Sawant HV. Prima-ry calcified hydatid cyst of the brain. J Neurosci Ru-ral Pract. 2010; 1:115-117.
7. Desai P, Bhat M. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts. Appl Radiol. 2009; 36: 36-7.
8. Yaka U, Yavuz Aras, Aydın Aydoselı, Mehmet Osman Akcakaya, Altay Sencer, Muratımer, Kemal Hepgul. Primary Multiple Cerebral Hydatid Dis-ease: Still Symptomatic Despite Pathologically Con-firmed Death of the Cyst. Turk Neurosurg. 2013: 23: 505-508.
9. Asanuma T, Matsumoto Y, Takiguchi M, Inanami O, Nakao M, Nakaya K, Ito A, Hashimoto A, Ku-wabara M. Magnetic resonance imaging and im-munoblot analyses in rats with experimentally in-duced cerebral alveolar echinococcosis. Comp Med. 2003; 53 (6): 649-656.
10. Smyth JD. Cestoda. In: Smyth JD (Ed), In vitro Cultivation of Parasitic Helminths. CRC Press, Flor-ida, 1990, pp 124–143.
11. Gana R, Skhissi M, Maaqili R, Bellakhdar F. Multi-ple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. J Clin Neurosci. 2008; 15: 591-593.
12. Kovoor JM, Thomas RD, Chandrashekhar HS, et al. Neurohydatidosis. Australas Radiol. 2007; 51: 406-411.
13. Cavuşoğlu H, Tuncer C, Ozdilmaç A, Aydin Y. Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts in a boy. Turk Neurosurg. 2009; 19: 203-207.
14. Daskas AN, Aggelopoulos E, Tzoufi M. Accidental drainage of a cerebral hydatid cyst into the peritone-al cavity. Ped Infec Dis J. 2004; 23(7): 685‐6.
15. Bekçi TT. Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Hydatid disease. Eur J Gen Med. 2012; 9 (Suppl 1): 15-20.
16. Yuan Q, Li B, Jiang S, Zhao Q, Duo J, Huang X. Gamma-Ray Treatment of Echinococcus Protoscole-ces prior to Implantation in Mice Reduces Echino-coccosis. BioMed Res Inter. 2016: 9027489, 9 pages.
17. Irehan B, Köroğlu E, Şimşek S. Administration of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces by different ways in mice and detection of serological responses Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2016; 63: 245-249.
18. Moro P, Schantz PM. Echinococcosis: a review. Int J Infect Dis. 2009; 13: 125-133.
19. Sato Y, Nakao M, Nakaya K, Ito A. Experimental infection of larval Echinococcus multilocularis in the ro-dent brain as a model for cerebral alveolar echino-coccosis. J. Helminthol. 1998; 72: 59-64.
20. El-Shamam O, Amer T, El-Atta MA. Magnetic resonance imaging of simple and infected hydatid cysts of the brain. Magn Reson Imaging. 2001; 19: 965–974.
21. Knapp, J., Nakao, M., Yanagida, T., Okamoto, M., Saarma, U., Lavikainen, A, Ito A. Phylogenetic rela-tionships within Echinococcus and Taenia tape-worms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nu-clear protein-coding genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011; 61: 628–638.
22. Sadjjadi SM, Mikaeili F, Karamian M, Maraghi M, Sadjjadi FS, Shariat-Torbaghan S, Kia EB. Evidence that the Echinococcus granulosus G6 genotype has an affinity for the brain in humans. Inter J Parasitol. 2013; 43: 875-877
23. Nemati A, Kamgarpour A, Rashid M, Sohrabi Nazari S. Giant cerebral hydatid cyst in a child- a case report and review of literature. British J Med Pract. 2010; 3 (3): a338-341.
24. Sarmast AH, Tank HN, Malik NK, Mujtaba B, Ahad Wani A. Case of cerebral hydatid cyst, rare parasitic brain infection presenting as refractory epi-lepsy. J Neuro Infect. Dis 2014; 6 (3): 180-183.
25. Andronikou S, Welman C and Kader E. Classic and unusual appearance of hydatid disease in chil-dren. Ped Radiolog. 2002; 32(11): 817–828.
26. Mancuso P, Noubari BA and Gurunsinghe NT. Multiple primary cerebral hydatid cysts. Br J Neu-rosurg. 1997; 11(3): 248–249.
27. Kemaloğlu S, Ozkan U, Bükte Y, Acar M, Ceviz A. Growth rate of cerebral hydatid cyst, with a review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2001; 17: 743-745.
28. Kammerer WS, Schantz PM. Echinococcal disease. Infect. Dis. Clin North Am 1993; 7: 605-18.
29. Ozkan U, Kemaloglu MS, Selcuki M. Gigantic intracranial mass of hydatid cyst. Child Nerv Syst. 2001; 17: 623-625.
30. Ali M, Mahmood K, Khan P. Hydatid cysts of the brain. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009; 21(3): 152-4.
31. Izci Y, Tuzun Y, Secer HI, Gonul E: Cerebral hydatid cysts: Technique and pitfalls of surgical management. Neurosurg Focus 24(6): E15, 2008
32. Carrea R, Dowling E Jr, Guevara A. Surgical treat-ment of hydatid cysts of the central nervous system in the pediatric age (Dowling’s technique). Child’s Brain. 1975; 1: 4-21.
33. Lightowlers MW, Jensen O, et al. Vaccination trials in Australia and Argentina confirm the effectiveness of the EG95 hydatid vaccine in sheep. Int J Parasi-tol. 1999; 29: 531-4.
34. Zhang W, Zhang Z, Shi B, Li J, You H, Tulson G, Dang X, Song Y, Yimiti T, Wang J, Jones MK, McManus DP. Vaccination of dogs against Echino-coccus granulosus, the cause of cystic hydatid disease in humans. J Infect Dis. 2006; 194; 966-74.
35. Ma X, Zhao H, Zhang F, Zhu Y, Peng S, Ma H, Cao C, Xin Y, Yimiti D, Wen H, Ding J. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection. Hum Vaccin Im-munother .2016; 12: 170-175.
36. Ito A, Kanazawa T, Nakao M, Sako Y, Ishikawa Y, Nakaya K. Comparison of the antigenicity of proto-scolices and macrovesicles of Echinococcus multilocu-laris prepared from rats. J Helminthol. 2001; 75: 355-358.
|Issue||Vol 15 No 1 (2020)|
|Keywords Keywords Keywords|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|