Efficacy and Safety of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice
AbstractBackground: Broad spectrums of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activity have been attributed to Zataria multiflora Boiss (Laminaceae). The in vivo efficacy and safety of Z. multiflora essential oil (ZM-EO) were evaluated against acute toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (Sarcocystidae) in mice. Methods: Z. multiflora (aerial parts) was obtained from the rural districts of Kerman city (Kerman Province) Southwestern Iran, in May of 2016. Male NMRI mice were orally treated with normal saline (control group) and ZM-EO at the doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg once a day for 14 d (8 mice in each group). On the 15th day, the mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain by intraperitoneal route. The mortality rate and parasite load were determined in the infected mice. Additionally, 24 mice were applied to examine the sub-acute toxicity of ZM-EO at the above doses after treatment during 14 d. Results: GC/MS analysis displayed that the key constituents were thymol (45.4%), carvacrol (23%) and p-cymene (10.6%), respectively. Overall, 100% mortality was observed on the 8th and 9th days in treated mice with the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg, respectively. The mean number of tachyzoites in the mice treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg of ZM-EO were 189×104 and 76×104 cell/mL, respectively, meaningfully (P<0.05) reduced compared with the control mice. Results also demonstrated that ZM-EO had no important toxicity on mice. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the efficacy of ZM-EO against acute toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, supplementary surveys are mandatory to examine its precise effects, mainly immunomodulatory effect on toxoplasmosis.
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