Short Communication

The Molecular Epidemiology of Cystic and Alveolar Echino-coccosis Disease in Southeast Turkey

Abstract

Background: The migration of humans and climatic and environmental changes cause the emergence of infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the molecular epidemiology of the Echinococcosis disease in the southeast region of Turkey after migrations.

Methods: Overall, 159 tissues samples were taken from suspected cases of Echinococcosis at the Kilis State Hospital in the southeast region of Turkey. All of the tissues samples were analyzed using histopathology methods, PCR, Real-time PCR methods, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses in laboratories.

Results: The positivity values of the histopathology, the polymerase chain reaction, and the Real-time PCR methods were found to be 14.5% (23/159), 15.7% (25/159), and 16.9% (27/159), respectively. 32.0 % (8/25) E. multilocularis of Echinococcus isolates and 68% (17/25) E. granulosus of Echinococcus isolates were identified using PCR methods. 58.8% (10/17) of the E. granulosus isolates were found to be Genotype 1% and 41.2% (7/17) E. granulosus isolates were found to be Genotype 3.

Conclusion: Molecular methods play an important role in the epidemiology, treatment, and diagnosis of diseases. Increasing immigration in a geographical area may create social, economic, and health problems in that area. For this reason, epidemiological studies of infectious diseases should be updated in areas with immigration.

1. Siyadatpanah A, Anvari D, Emami Zeydi A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis for genetic characterization of human echinococcosis in Iran, an endemic country. Epidemiol Health. 2019; 41:e2019024.
2. Avcioglu H, Guven E, Balkaya I, et al. First detecton of Echinococcus multilocularis in ro-dent intermediate hosts in Turkey. Parasit-ology. 2017; 144(13):1821-1827.
3. Due Q, Wang Y, Zhang M, et al. A new treatment strategy for end-stage hepatic al-veolar echinococcosis: IVC resection without reconstruction. Sci Rep. 2019; 9:9419.
4. Khan A, Ahmed H, Simsek S. War, migra-tion and cystic echinococcosis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019; 28:111-112.
5. Kohansal MH, Nourian A, Rahimi MT, et al. Natural products applied against hyda-tid cyst protoscolices: A review of past to present. Acta Trop. 2017; 176: 385-394.
6. Sałamatin R, Kowal J, Nosal P, et al. Cystic echinococcosis in Poland: genetic variabil-ity and the first record of Echinococcus granu-losus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) in country. Parasitol Res. 2017; 116(11),3077-3085.
7. Simsek S, Roinioti E, Eroksuz H. First re-port of Echinococcus equinus in a Donkey in Turkey. Korean J Parasitol. 2015; 53(6):731-5.
8. Akcam AT, Ulku A, Koltas IS, et al. Clini-cal characterization of unusual cystic echi-nococcosis in southern part of Turkey. Ann Saudi Med. 2014; 34(6),508-516.
9. Ebrahimipour M, Budke CM, Najjari M et al. Surgically managed human cystic echi-nococcosis in north-eastern Iran: a single center’s experience from 2001 to 2008. J Parasit Dis. 2017; 41(3),883-887.
10. Tamarozzi F, Hou A, Morales ML, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for human cystic echinococcosis in the Cusco Region of the Peruvian highlands diagnosed using focused abdominal ultrasound. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017; 96(6),1472-1477.
11. Eybpoosh S, Haghdoos AA, Mostafavi E, et al. Molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. Electronic Physician. 2017; 9(8):5149-5158.
12. Hoffmann S, Samuk S. Turkish immigra-tion politics and the Syrian refugee crisis. Working Paper Research Division Global Issues. SWP. Berlin. 2016.
13. Nakao M, Xiao N, Okamoto M, et al. Ge-ographic pattern of genetic variation in the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Par-asitol Int. 2009; 58(4):384-9.
14. Roinioti E, Papathanassopoulou A, The-odoropoulou I, et al. Molecular identifica-tion of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from ruminants in Greece. Vet Parasitol. 2016; 15, 226:138-44.
15. Matera G, Loria MT, Peronace C, et al. Increase of vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease of MCP-1 and some updated epidemiology aspectes of cystic Echinococcosis human cases in Calabria region. Mediators Inflamm. 2018; 2018: 4283672.
16. Knapp J, Millon I, Mouzon I, et al. Real-Time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multiloc-ularis from red fox stools. Vet Parasitol. 2014; 201(1-2):40-7.
17. Pestechian N, Hosseini Safa A, Tajedini M. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus in center of Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2014; 2(4): 413–418.
18. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs377/en/ (last accessed date: 07.03.2019).
19. Rencuzogulları A, Koltas IS, Akcam AT, et al. Challenges, prognosis and outcomes of surgical resection for hepatic alveolar echi-nococcosis: a single centre experience. Di-clemedj. 2017; 44(2):183-190.
20. Ozgur T, Kaya OA, Hakverdi S, et al. Ret-rospective evaluation of the echinococ-cosis cases regarding histopathological as-pects. Diclemedj. 2013; 40(4):641-644.
21. Knapp J, Umhang G, Poulle ML, et al. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a sensitive one-step coprodiagnosis allowing both the identification of carnivore feces and the detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis. Appl Environ Mi-crobiol. 2016; 82(10):2950-2958.
22. Schweiger A, Ammann RW, Candinas D, et al. Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007; 13(6): 878–882.
23. Federer K, Armuda-Fernandez MT, Gori F, et al. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp.) eggs contaminating vege-tables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2016; 5(3),249-53.
24. Boufana B, Umhang G, Qiu J, et al. De-velopment of three PCR assays for the differentiation between Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype), and Ehinococcus multilocularis DNA in the co-endemic region of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013; 88(4): 795–802.
25. Umhang G, Bastien M, Renault C, et al. A flotation/sieving method to detect Echino-coccus multilocularis and Toxocara spp eggs in soil by Real-Time PCR. Parasite. 2017; 24:28.
26. Ahmadi N, Dalimi A. Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from human, sheep, and camel in Iran. Infect Genet Evol. 2006; 6(2),85-90.
27. Icduyu A. Syrian refugees in Turkey the long road ahead. Transatlantic council on migration, Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. 2015.
28. Ütük AE. Molecular distinction of Echino-coccus granulosus isolates in eastern and southeastern Anatolia region. PhD Thesis. Fırat University. 2008.
29. Ütük AE, Piskin FC, Dalkılıc B. Molecular characterization of sheep isolates of Echino-coccus granulosus in Kilis province. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2012; A35-A38.
Files
IssueVol 16 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionShort Communication(s)
Published2021-05-28
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v16i2.6284
Keywords
Cystic echinococcosis Alveolar echinococcosis Molecular methods Immigration

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Eroglu F, Dokur M, Ulu Y. The Molecular Epidemiology of Cystic and Alveolar Echino-coccosis Disease in Southeast Turkey. Iran J Parasitol. 16(2):327-335.