The Lethal Effect of a Nano Emulsion of Satureja hortensis Essential Oil on Protoscoleces and Germinal Layer of Hydatid Cysts
AbstractBackground: New scolicidal agents and novel therapeutic drugs are essential for better management of the zoonotic infection, hydatid disease. This study evaluated the effect of a nanoemulsion (NE) of Satureja hortensis essential oil (SHEO) on protoscoleces and germinal layer of hydatid cysts. Methods: This study was conducted from July to October 2016 in Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to identify the main components of SHEO. To determine the scolicidal power of the NE of SHEO, live protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were exposed to two concentrations (1 and, 2 mg/mL) of the NE and incubated at 37 °C for 10 and 20 min. To evaluate the anti-hydatid effect of the NE of SHEO, the collected hydatid cysts from the abdominal cavities of the experimentally infected mice were immersed in the NE (0.5 mg/ml) and incubated at 22 °C for 24 h. Results: Carvacrol and γ-terpinene were the major components of the SHEO. NE of SHEO at the concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL showed 100% scolicidal power after 20 and 10 min respectively. Exposure of the hydatid cysts to the NE of SHEO resulted in crumpling of their germinal layer and detachment of this layer from the laminated layer. Conclusion: NE of SHEO showed a strong scolicidal activity as well as a profound lethal effect on the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. Accordingly, this product may be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. Furthermore, it may be used as a therapeutic tool for treatment of hydatid disease.
2. Mahmoudvand H, Mirbadie SR, Ghasemi Kia M et al. Efficacy of Pistacia khinjuk Fruits on Viability of Hydatid Cyst Proto-scoleces and Its Acute Toxicity in Mice Model. Iran J Parasitol. 2016; 11(3): 383-388.
3. Nicolao MC, Elissondo MC, Denegri GM et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Ta-moxifen against Larval Stage Echinococcus granulosus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014; 58(9): 5146–5154.
4. Ammann RW, Eckert JC. Echinococcus. Gas-troenterol Clin North Am. 1996; 25(3): 655–689.
5. 5 Topcu O, Aydin C, Arici S et al. The ef-fects of various scolicidal agents on the hepatopancreatic biliary system. Chir Gas-troenterol. 2006; 22(3): 185–190.
6. Frayha GJ, Bikhazi KJ, Kachachi TA. Treatment of hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus) by Cetrimide (R). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.1981; 75(3): 447-450.
7. Ciftci IH, Esme H, Sahin DA et al. Effect of Octenidine Dihydrochioride on Viabil-ity of Protoscoleces in Hepatic and Pul-monary Hydatid Diseases. J Natl Med As-soc. 2007; 99(6): 674-477.
8. Caglar R, Yuzbasioglu MF, Bulbuloglu E et al. In vitro effectiveness of different chem-ical agents on scolices of hydatid cyst. J Invest Surg. 2008: 21(2): 71–75.
9. Besim H, Karayalçin K, Hamamci O et al. Scolicidal agents in hydatid cyst surgery. HPB Surg. 1998; 10(6): 347–351.
10. Belghiti J, Perniceni T, Kabbej M, Fekete F. [Complications of peroperative sterilization of hydatid cysts of the liver. A propos of 6 cases]. Chirurgie. 1991; 117(5-6): 343-346.
11. Klouche K, Charlotte N, Kaaki M, Beraud JJ. Coma and haemolysis after cetrimide washout of epidural hydatid cyst. Intensive Care Med. 1994; 20(8): 613.
12. Rajabi MA. Fatal reactions and methaemo-globinaemia after silver nitrate irrigation of hydatid cyst. Surg Pract. 2009; 13(1): 2–7.
13. McManus DP, ZhangW, Li J, Bartley PB. Echinococcosis. Lancet. 2003; 362: 1295–1304.
14. Sadjjadi SM, Zoharizadeh MR, Panjesha-hin MR. In Vitro Screening of Different Allium Sativum Extracts on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces. J Invest Surg. 2008; 21(6): 318–322.
15. Hadian J, Ebrahimi SN, Salehi P. Variabil-ity of morphological and phytochemical characteristics among Satureja hortensis L. accessions of Iran. 2010; 32(1): 62-69.
16. Feyzioglu GC, Tornuk F. Development of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with sum-mer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil for antimicrobial and antioxidant delivery applications. LWT - Food Science and Technol. 2016; 70: 104–110.
17. Gulluce M, Sokmen M, Daferera D et al. The in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus cultures of Satureja hortensis L. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51(14): 3958–3965.
18. Dikbas N, Kotan R, Dadasoglu F, Sahin F. Control of Aspergillus flavus with essential oil and methanol extract of Satureja hortensis. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008; 124(2): 179–182.
19. European Pharmacopoeia. Part 1. Editors: Maisonneuve SA, Sainte Ruffine. 1983; p. V.4.5.8.
20. Ostertag F, Weiss J, McClements DJ. Low-energy formation of edible nanoemulsions: factors influencing droplet size produced by emulsion phase inver-sion. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2012; 388(1): 95–112.
21. Li PH, Chiang BH. Process optimization and stability of D-limonene-in-water nanoemulsions prepared by ultrasonic emulsification using response surface methodology. Ultrason Sonochem. 2012; 19 (1): 192–197.
22. Hazrati H, Saharkhiz MJ, Niakousari M, Moein M. Natural herbicide activity of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil nanoemul-sion on the seed germination and mor-phophysiological features of two im-portant weed species. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 2017; 142: 423–430.
23. Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatog-raphy/Mass Spectroscopy Allured Pub-lishing Corporation, Illinois. 2007.
24. Moazeni M, Nazer A. In vitro effective-ness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst. World J Surg. 2010; 34(11): 2677–2681.
25. Elissondo MC, Albani CM, Gende L et al. Efficacy of thymol against Echinococcus gran-ulosus protoscoleces. Parasitol Int. 2008: 57(2): 185–190.
26. Elissondo MC, Pensel PE, Denegri GM. Could thymol have effectiveness on scoli-ces and germinal layer of hydatid cysts? Acta Trop. 2013; 125(3): 251–257 36.
27. Moazeni M, Larki S, Oryan A et al. Pre-ventive and therapeutic effects of Zataria multiflora methanolic extract on hydatid cyst: An in vivo study. Vet Parasitol. 2014; 205(1-2): 107–112.
28. Sajed H, Sahebkar A, Iranshahi M. Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Shirazi thyme)—An an-cient condiment with modern pharmaceu-tical uses. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 145(3): 686−695.
29. Fabbri J, Maggiore MA, Pensel PE et al. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of carvacrol against Echinococcus granulosus. Acta Trop. 2016;164: 272-279.
30. Andre WPP, Ribeiro WLC, Cavalcante GS et al. Comparative efficacy and toxic ef-fects of carvacryl acetate and carvacrolon sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and mice. Vet Parasitol. 2016; 218: 52–58.
31. Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Formulation and Characterization of Plant Essential Oil Based Nanoemulsion Evaluation of its Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti. Asian J Chem. 2013; 25: S321-S323.
Copyright (c) 2019 Iranian Journal of Parasitology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.