Original Article

Situation and Cercarial Infection of Freshwater Mollusk from Sirindhorn Reservoir, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand


Background: Most of trematodes need snails to complete their life cycles. Consequently freshwater snails are served as intermediate hosts of many parasites worldwide. There is a lack of report on snail diversity and parasitic infection in snails in Sirindhorn Reservoir, Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

Methods: Mollusk diversity and trematode cercariae infections were investigated in snails from 120 sampling sites surround Sirindhorn Reservoir from April 2018 to June 2018. Mollusk species were identified based on their shell morphology. The presence of cercariae infections in snails was examined by cercarial shedding methods. The interaction between snail species was analyzed by the correlation method.

Results: Overall, 2076 mollusks were collected which comprised six species of snails and two species of bivalves. Snail species were identified as Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, Anentome helena, Filopaludina sumatrensis spiciosa, F. martensi martensi, F. martensi munensis and Pomacea canaliculata. The overall rate of trematode cercariae infection was 1.69% (35/2,076). The cercariae found infecting snails were Cercariaeum cercaria, Virgulate cercaria, Cotylomicrocercous cercaria and Furcocercous cercaria. The most common snails found was the assassin snail, A. helena, which showed the negative relationship among other species interactions.

Conclusion: This finding indicated infection with animal’s parasites in snails in this area are common, besides, we found many species of snails in Sirindhorn Reservoir are potentially be the host of parasite in animal and human.

Andrews RH, Sithithaworn P, Petney TN. Opisthorchis viverrini: an underestimated parasite in world health. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24(11):497-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2008.08.011

Chai JY, Murrell KD, Lymbery AJ. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35(11-12):1233-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.07.013

Adam R, Pipitgool V, Sithithaworn P, Hinz E, Storch V. Morphology and ultrastructure of the digestive gland of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalus (Prosobranchia: Bithyniidae) and alterations induced by infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Trematoda: Digenea). Parasitol Res. 1995;81(8):684-92.

Kalbe M, Haberl B, Haas W. Miracidial host-finding in Fasciola hepatica and Trichobilharzia ocellata is stimulated by species-specific glycoconjugates released from the host snails. Parasitol Res. 1997;83(8):806-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004360050344

Bass CS, Weis JS. Increased abundance of snails and trematode parasites of Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) in restored New Jersey wetlands. Wetlands Ecol Manage. 2008;16(3):173-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-007-9064-4

Fenwick A. Waterborne infectious diseases - could they be consigned to history?. Science. 2006;313(5790):1077-81.

Sokolow SH, Jones IJ, Jocque M, La D, Cords O, Knight A, Lund A, Wood CL, Kevin D, Lafferty KD, Hoover CM, Collender PA, Remais JV, Lopez-Carr D, Fisk J, Kuris AM, De Leo GA. Nearly 400 million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017;372(1722):1-12. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1722/20160127

Piratae S. Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first -intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015;8(10):779-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.09.002

Tesana S. Diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 2002;33:733-8. http://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/TMPH/10584459.pdf

Kulsantiwong J, Prasopdee S, Labbunruang N, Chaiyasaeng M, Tesana S. Habitat and trematode infection of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in Udon Thani province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2017;48(5):975-82. http://www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/seameo/2017-48-5/03-700821-975.pdf

Brandt RAM. The non-marine aquatic Mollusca of Thailand. Archiv für Molluskenkunde. 1974;105:1-423.

Upatham ES, Sornmani S, Kitikoon V, Lohachit C, Burch JB. Identification key for the fresh- and brackish-water snails of Thailand. Malacological Review. 1983;16:107-32.

Kaewkes S, Kaewkes W, Boonmars T, Sripa B. Effect of light intensity on Opisthorchis viverrini cercarial shedding levels from Bithynia snails - a preliminary study. Parasitol Int. 2012;61(1):46-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2011.08.015

Sripa J, Kiatsopit N, Piratae S. Prevalence of trematode larvae in intermediate hosts: snails and fish in Ko Ae sub-district of Khueang Nai, Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2016;47(3):399-409. http://www.thaiscience.info/journals/Article/TMPH/10983727.pdf

Frandsen F, Christensen NO. An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African freshwater snails with special reference to cercariae of trematode species of medical and veterinary importance. Acta Trop. 1984;41(2):181-202.

Namchote S, Sritongtae S, Butnin S, Wongwain P, Krailas D. Larval stage of trematodes obtained from brackish water snails in the central and east coast of the gulf of Thailand. Sci Res Essays. 2015;10(11):386-401. http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/SRE/article-full-text-pdf/5B84A0153469

Krailas D, Namchote S, Koonchornboon T, Dechruksa W, Boonmekam D. Trematodes obtained from the thiarid freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) as vector of human infections in Thailand. Zoosyst Evol. 2014;90:57-86. https://doi.org/10.3897/zse.90.7306

Harinasuta C, Harinasuta T. Opisthorchis viverrini: life cycle, intermediate hosts, transmission to man and geographical distribution in Thailand. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34.9B:1164-7.

Kiatsopit N, Sithithaworn P, Saijuntha W, Boonmars T, Tesana S, Sithithaworn J, Petney TN, Andrews RH. Exceptionally high prevalence of infection of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos with Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae in different wetlands in Thailand and Lao PDR. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86(3):464-9. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0217

Chai JY, Sohn WM, Na BK, Van De N. Echinostoma revolutum: Metacercariae in Filopaludina snails from Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam, and adults from experimental hamsters. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49(4):449-55. https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2011.49.4.449

Tesana S, Srisawangwong T, Sithithaworn P, Laha T, Andrews R. Prevalence and intensity of infection with third stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mollusks from Northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:983-7. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.983

Kim JR, Hayes KA, Yeung NW, Cowie RH. Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands. PloS one. 2014;9.5:e94969. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094969

Anucherngchai S, Tejangkura T, Chontananarth T. Epidemiological situation and molecular identification of cercarial stage in freshwater snails in Chao-Phraya basin, Central Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2016;6(6):539-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.01.015

Chontananarth T, Wongsawad C. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013;3(3):237-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60058-1

Chontananarth T, Tejangkura T, Wetchasart N, Chimburut C. Morphological Characteristics and Phylogenetic Trends of Trematode Cercariae in Freshwater Snails from Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. Korean J Parasitol. 2017;55(1):47-54. https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2017.55.1.47

Yutemsuk N, Krailas D, Anancharoenkit C, Phanpeng L, Dechruksa W. Trematode infections of freshwater snails genus Clea A. Adams, 1855 in the reservoir of lower northeast Thailand. JITMM Proceedings. 2017;6:7-16.

Yakovenko V, Fedonenko O, Klimenko O, Petrovsky O. Biological control of the invasive snail species Melanoides tuberculata and Tarebia granifera in Zaporizka Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond. Ukr J Ecol. 2018;8(1):975-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.15421/2018_301

Oleh M, Kyrylo B, Olena K. Biological and biomechanical principles of the controlling molluscs Melanoides tuberculata (Müller 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) in reservoirs of strategic importance. World Sci News. 2018;99:71-83.

Ng TH, Foon JK, Tan SK, Chan MK, Yeo DC. First non-native establishment of the carnivorous assassin snail, Anentome helena (von dem Busch in Philippi, 1847). Bioinvasions Rec. 2016;5(3):143-8. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2016/3/BIR_2016_Ng_etal2.pdf

IssueVol 14 No 3 (2019) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v14i3.1481
Trematode cercariae Survey Freshwater snails Diversity

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
HARUAY S, PIRATAE S. Situation and Cercarial Infection of Freshwater Mollusk from Sirindhorn Reservoir, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Iran J Parasitol. 2019;14(3):421-429.