Kinetics Evaluation of IgM and IgG Levels in the Mice Infect-ed with Trichinella spiralis Experimentally Using ES Antigens from Different Developmental Stages of the Parasite
AbstractBackground: To assay the Trichinella-specific IgM and IgG antibody responses during the early stage of infection, serum was collected from mice infected with the muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis (ISS534) at different dpi (days post infection) up to 60 days. Methods: The levels of IgM and IgG antibodies in serum were measured by ES antigens from different stage of T. spiralis using the ELISA method in Shanghai, China in 2017. Results: The anti-Trichinella IgM and IgG could be detected by ES antigens from the adult three days worm (Ad3) as early as 5 dpi and 8 dpi, respectively. ES antigens from the mixture of adult six days worm & new born larvae (Ad6+NBL) was similar to Ad3. When antibodies were detected by these two antigens, the levels of IgM peaked at 14 dpi and then declined from 15 dpi to 60 dpi; the IgG peaked at 20 dpi, and gradually declined, however, higher detection levels were maintained until 60 dpi. Conclusion: Ad3 ES antigens showed more antigenicity than Ad6+NBL ES on titer detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, and the production of Ad3 ES is easier. In terms of early diagnosis, these two antigens are better than the ML ES antigens of T. spiralis, which antibodies could not be detected before 20dpi. Ad3 ES antigens might be good candidate for the early diagnosis of trichinellosis or the mixture of Ad3 and Ad6+NBL ES might be used.
2. Murrell KD. The dynamics of Trichinella spiralis epidemiology: Out to pasture? Vet Parasitol. 2016;231:92-96.
3. Murrell KD, Pozio E. Worldwide occurrence and impact of human trichinellosis, 1986-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(12):2194-202.
4. Bai X, Hu X, Liu X et al. Current Research of Trichinellosis in China. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1472.
5. Office International des Epi-zooties. Trichinellosis. In OIE Terrestrial Manual. 2013; pp.6-9.
6. Yang Y, Vallée I, Lacour SA et al. Identification and characterization of immunodominant linear epitopes on the antigenic region of a serine protease in newborn Trichinella larvae. J Helminthol. 2016;90(2):232-7.
7. Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nöckler K. Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009;22(1):127-45.
8. Kołodziej-Sobocińska M, Dvoroznakova E, Dziemian E. Trichinella spiralis: macrophage activity and antibody response in chronic murine infection. Exp Parasitol. 2006;112(1):52-62.
9. Murrell KD. Trichinellosis: now and forevermore? Parasite. 2001;8(2 Suppl):S11-3.
10. Nuñez GG, Malmassari SL, Costantino SN, Venturiello SM. Immunoelectrotransfer blot assay in acute and chronic human trichinellosis. J Parasitol. 2009; 86: 1121-1124.
11. Jung D, Teifke JP, Karger A et al. Evaluation of baculovirus-derived recombinant 53-kDa protein of Trichinella spiralis for detection of Trichinella-specific antibodies in domestic pigs by ELISA. Parasitol Res. 2007; 100: 429-437.
12. Wu XP, Liu XL, Wang XL et al. Unique antigenic gene expression at different developmental stages of Trichinella pseudospiralis. Vet Parasitol. 2013;194(2-4):198-201.
13. Dziemian B, Machnicka B. Influence of Trichinella spiralis infective dose on the level of antibodies, circulating antigens and circulating immune complexes in rats. Helminthologia. 2000; 37: 59-66.
14. Calcagno MA, Forastiero MA, Saracino MP et al. Serum IgE and IgG4 against muscle larva excretory-secretory products during the early and late phases of human trichinellosis. Parasitol Res. 2017;116(11):2933-2939.
15. Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M, Capra JD. Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease. In The 4th International Conference on Artificial Immune Systems. 2005.
16. Mayer-Scholl A, Pozio E, Gayda J et al. Magnetic Stirrer Method for the Detection of Trichinella Larvae in Muscle Samples. J Vis Exp. 2017;(121).
17. Wang ZQ, Fu GY, Jing FJ et al. Detection of Trichinella spiralis circulating antigens in serum of experimentally infected mice by an IgY-mAb sandwich ELISA. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9(8):727-33.
18. Bian K, Zhong M, Harari Y et al. Helminth regulation of host IL-4Rα/Stat6 signaling: Mechanism underlying NOS-2 inhibition by Trichinella spiralis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(11):3936-41.
19. Wang Y, Bai X, Zhu H et al. Immunoproteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis adult worms and newborn larvae. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10(1):579.
20. Wu Z, Nagano I, Takahashi Y, Maekawa Y. Practical methods for collecting Trichinella parasites and their excretory-secretory products. Parasitol Int. 2016;65(5 Pt B):591-595.
21. Sun GG, Wang ZQ, Liu CY et al. Early serodiagnosis of trichinellosis by ELISA using excretory–secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis adult worms. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:484.
22. Yang Y, Cai YN, Tong MW et al. Serological tools for detection of Trichinella infection in animals and humans. One Health. 2016;2:25-30.
23. Wu XP, Fu BQ, Wang XL et al. Identification of antigenic genes in Trichinella spiralis by immunoscreening of cDNA libraries. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159(3-4):272-5.
24. Morales MAG, Mele R, Sanchez M et al. Increased CD8+-T-cell expression and a Type 2 cytokine pattern during the muscular phase of Trichinella infection in humans. Infect Immun. 2002; 70: 233-239.
25. Au AC, Ko RC, Simon JW et al. Study of acute trichinosis in Ghurkas: specificity and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for IgM and IgE antibodies to Trichinella larval antigens in diagnosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(3):412-5.
26. Reiterová K, Antolová D, Hurníková Z. Humoral immune response of mice infected with low doses of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159(3-4):232-5.
27. Boes M. Role of natural and immune IgM antibodies in immune responses. Mol Immunol. 2000;37(18):1141-9.
28. Panda S, Ding JL. Natural antibodies bridge innate and adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2015;194(1):13-20.
29. Simell B, Nurkka A, Ekström N et al. Serum IgM antibodies contribute to high levels of opsonophagocytic activities in toddlers immunized with a single dose of the 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19(10):1618-23.
30. Candolfi E, Frache P, Liance M et al. Detection of circulating antigen in trichinellosis by immuno-enzymology: comparative results in mice, rats and humans. In: Trichinellosis. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Trichinellosis. 1989; pp: 194-201.
31. Ilic N, Gruden-Movsesijan A, Cvetkovic J et al. Trichinella spiralis Excretory-Secretory Products Induce Tolerogenic Properties in Human Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4. Front Immunol. 2018;9:11.
32. Wang ZQ, Shi YL, Liu RD et al. New insights on serodiagnosis of trichinellosis during window period: early diagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis intestinal worms. Infect Dis Poverty. 2017; 6: 41.
Copyright (c) 2019 Iranian Journal of Parasitology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.