The Prevalence of Trichomoniasis in Women Referred to Clinical Centers in South of Tehran, Iran during 2015-2016
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of trichomoniasis infection among females in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: This study was conducted on 482 women referred to the 6 obstetrics and gynecology centers of Tehran during 2015-2016. Some information including education, occupation, and number of sexual partners was obtained and clinical signs and symptoms of the genital tract were diagnosed by clinical examination. Two swabs were collected from the posterior fornix of patients. Two laboratory techniques, wet mount, and culture were carried out. Finally, statistical analysis test was performed using SPSS software version 16.0.
Results: Age distribution of patients was 15-60 yr. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected in 2 out of 482 participants (0.41%). All of the infected individuals were married (0.43%) and they had unique sexual partner and all of them had clinical symptoms. Significant association was observed between incidence of T. vaginalis infection and educational levels (P= 0.03), occupation (P=0.006), clinical symptoms (P=0.001), marriage (P=0.006) and bacterial infection (P=0.018).
Conclusion: The prevalence of trichomoniasis was low and its incidence was associated with several risk factors.
Herbst de Cortina S, Bristow CC, Joseph Davey D, Klausner JD. A Systematic Re-view of Point of Care Testing for Chlamyd-ia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016;2016:4386127.
Fichorova RN. Impact of T. vaginalis infec-tion on innateimmune responses and re-productive outcome. J Reprod Immunol. 2009; 83(1-2):185-9.
Van Der Pol B, Kwok C, Pierre-Louis B et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection and human immunodeficiency virusacquisition in Afri-can women. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(4):548-54.
Kenyon CR, Hamilton DT. Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalisand Concur-rency: An Ecological Study. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2016;2016:5052802.
Shuter J, Bell D, Graham D, Holbrook KA, Bellin EY. Rates of and risk factors for trichomoniasis among pregnant in-mates in New York City. Sex Transm Dis. 1998;25(6):303-7.
Magnus M, Clark R, Myers L, Farley T, Kissinger PJ. Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV—infected women: are immune status or protease inhibitor use associated with subsequent T. vaginalis positivity. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30(11):839-43.
Johnston VJ, Mabey DC. Global epidemi-ology and control of Trichomonas vaginalis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21(1):56-64.
Ginocchio CC, Chapin K, Smith JS, Aslanzadeh J, Snook J, Hill CS, Gaydos CA. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeaein the Unit¬ed States as determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nu¬cleic acid amplification assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(8):2601-8.
Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 dis-eases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2163-96.
Arbabi M, Fakhrieh Z, Delavari M, Abdoli A. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infec-tion in Kashan city, Iran(2012-2013). Iran J Reprod Med. 2014;12(7):507-12.
Rezaeian M, Vatanshenassan M, Rezaie S, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Us-ing Parasitological Methods in Tehran. Iran J Parasitol.2009;4(4):43–7.
Matini M, Rezaie S, Mohebali M, et al. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Hamadan City, Western Iran. Iran J Par-asitol. 2012;7(2):67–72.
Kissinger P. Epidemiology and treatment of trichomoniasis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2015; 17(6):484.
Khan MS, Unemo M, Zaman S, Lundborg CS. prevalence and risk behaviours among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:119.
Gregson S, Mason PR, Garnett GP et al. A rural HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe? Find-ings from a population-based survey. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12(3):189-96.
Roth AM, Williams JA, Ly R et al. Chang-ing sexually transmitted infection screening protocol will result in improved case find-ing for trichomonas vaginalis among high-risk female populations. Sex Transm Dis. 2011; 38(5):398-400.
Manshoori A, Mirzaei S, Valadkhani Z et al. Diagnostic and symptomatological study on trichomoniasis in symptomatic pregnant women in Rafsanjan, South central Iran in 2012-13. Iran J Parasitol. 2015;10(3):490-7.
Nazari N, Zangeneh M, Moradi F, Bozor-gomid A. Prevalence of trichomoniasis Among women in Kermanshah, Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015; 17(3):e23617.
Maharlouei N, Barooti E, Sharif F, Hos-seini H, Lankarani KB. Prev¬alence and risk factors of reproductive tract infections among a defined population of Iranian women. Sex Health. 2013; 10(4):311-5.
Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH et al. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001–2004. Clin In-fect Dis. 2007; 45(10):1319-26.
Moodley P, Connolly C, Sturm AW. Inter-relationships among human immunodefi-ciency virus type 1 infection, bacterial vagi-nosis, trichomoniasis, and the presence of yeasts. J Infect Dis. 2002;185(1):69-73.
Rathod SD, Krupp K, Klausner JD, Arun A, Reingold AL, Madhivanan P. Bacterial vaginosis and risk for Trichomonas vaginalis infection: a longitudinal analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2011; 38(9):882-6.
Gheraghi M, Rahimi Z, Parsa S. Prevalence of Cervical vaginal infection in the pop smear samples in Iran. Global J Health Sci. 2014; 6(1): 201-5.
|Issue||Vol 13 No 1 (2018)|
|Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Risk factors Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|