Original Article

Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis


Background: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Metronidazole is a chosen drug for the treatment. This study evaluated the anti trichomonal activity of alcoholic extracts of combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale.

Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Parasitology Laboratory, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2015, on 23 women with suspected trichomoniasis referring to Kashan clinical centers. Medium TYI-S-33 was used for culture of three T. vaginalis isolates. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) of V. thapsus and G. officinale ethanol extract added to Trichomonas trophozoites in 48-well plates and metronidazole considered as positive control and the negative control was TYI-S33 containing Trichomonas trophozoites without any drug. In all of mentioned groups, trophozoites number counted 12, 24, 48 h after culture. Results were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test, to evaluate the toxicity of extract, measured by MTT assay. Induced apoptosis of T. vaginalis after treatment with different concentrations of extract was determined by Flow Cytometry.

Results: IC50 of alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale and metronidazole after 24h was 73.80 µg/ml and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. The toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of this combination were between 0.2-1.98. In different concentrations of extract (25,50,100,200 and 400 µg/ml) apoptosis percent after 48h was 18.97 to 77.19 and necrosis percent was calculated 1.35, 3.18, 3.10, 1.16 and 4.09, respectively.

Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. Due to no toxicity on macrophages, it can be examined in vivo studies.

Yezid Gutierrez. Diagnostic Pathology of Parasitic Infection. Second Edition; Oxford University press 2000:52-58.

Moodley P, Wilkinson D, Connolly C et al. Trichomonas vaginalis Is Associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Women Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34:519-522.

Chaves Vilela R, Benchimol M. Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells-new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 107(6):720-7.

Hezarjaribi HZ, Fakhar M, Shokri A et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among Iranian general population of women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasitol Res. 114(4):1291-300.

Calzada F, Yépez-mulia L, Tapia-contreras A. Effect of mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113(2):248-51.

Schwebke JR, Barrientes FJ, Barrientes FJ. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50(12):4209-10.

Semnani MK, Saeidi M, Mahdavi MR, Rahimi F. Antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts of some species of Stachys and Phlomis. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2007; 17(57): 57-66.

Kavita V, Sanjay G. Herbal medicines for sexually transmitted disease and AIDS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;80(1):49-66.

Kupeli E, Tatli II, Akdemir ZS, Yesilada E. Biossay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory & anti nociceptive glycoterpenoids from the folwer of Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Bentham. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110(3):444-50.

Mirhaidar H. Plant sciences. Nashre Farhange Eslami. 2005; 418-423.

Chang JS, Wang KC, Yeh CF et al. Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145(1):146-51.

Diamond LS, Harlow DR, Cunnick CC. A new medium for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and other Entamoeba. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1978;72(4):431-2.

Foster S, Tyler VE. A sensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies. 4th ed. New York: The Havorth Herbal Press; 1999;98-102.

Calzada F, Yepez-mulia L, Tapia-contreras A. Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. J Ethnopharmaco. 2007;113(2):248-251.

Fakhrie-Kashan Z, Arbabi M, Delavari M et al. The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Pelarqonium roseumon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. Feyz, Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences 2014;18(4):369-375.

Fakhrieh-Kashan Z, Arbabi M, Delavari M et al. In-vitro Therapeutic Effect of Allium Cepa, Oliveria Decumbens Vent and Muscari Neglectum against Trichomonas vaginalis. Journal of Isfahan Medical Sciences. 2015; 32(310):1985-1992.

Ezatpur B, Badparva E, Ahmadi Sh et al. Investigation of Anti Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Lavandula angyustifolia Essential Oil in in vitro Media. Sci J Ilam Med Univ. 2009;16(4):31-37.

Barbosa E, Calzada F, Campos R. In vivo antigiardial activity of three flavonoids isolated of some medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;109(3):552-4.

Adebajo AC, Ayoola OF, Iwalewa EO et al. Anti-trichomonal, biochemical and toxicological activities of methanolic extract and some carbazole alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Murraya koenigii growing in Nigeria. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(4):246-54.

Arthan D, Sithiprom S, Thima K et al. Inhibitory effects of Thai plants beta-glycosides on Trichomonas vaginalis. Parasitol Res. 2008;103(2):443-8.

Ródio C, da Rocha VD, Kowalski K et al. In vitro evaluation of the amebicidal activity of Pterocaulon polystachyum (Asteraceae) against trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. Parasitol Res. 2008;104(1):191-4.

González-Coloma A, Reina M, Sáenz C et al. Anti leishmanial, anti trypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants. Parasitol Res. 2012;110(4):1381-92.

Mostafa OM, EidR A, Adly MA. Antischistosomal activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Schistosoma mansoni harbored in C57 mice. Parasitol Res. 2011;109(2):395-403.

Lin RJ, Chen CY, Chung LY, Yen CM. Larvicidal activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Acta Trop. 2010;115(1-2):69-76.

Chose O, Noël C, Gerbod D et al. A form of cell death with some features resembling apoptosis in the a mitochondrial unicellular organism Trichomonas vaginalis. Exp Cell Res. 2002;276(1):32-9.

Tiwari P, Singh D, Singh MM. Anti-Trichomonas activity of Sapindus saponins, a candidate for development as microbicidal contraceptive. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(3):526-34.

Fakhrieh Kashan Z, Arbabi M, Delavari M et al. Effect of Verbascum thapsus Ethanol Extract on Induction of Apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(2):125-30.

Tavakol Afshari J, Moheghi N, Brook A. Ethanolic Extract Cytotoxic Effect of Zingiber officinale in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HEPG2) Cell Line. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3): 52-56.

IssueVol 13 No 1 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Trichomonas vaginalis Alcoholic extract Verbascum thapsus Ginger officinale In vitro

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
FAKHRIEH-KASHAN Z, ARBABI M, DELAVARI M, MOHEBALI M, HOOSHYAR H. Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis. Iran J Parasitol. 1;13(1):72-78.