Infection of Anisakids Larvae in Long Tail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol) In North Persian Gulf

  • A Eslami Mail Department of Parasitology, School of Specialized veterinary Sciences, Sciences and Researches Unit, Islamic Azad University, Fellow, Academy of Sciences, Iran
  • H Sabokroo Veterinary Surgeon, Bandar-Abbas, Iran
  • SH Ranjbar- Bahadori Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Azad Islamic University, Garmsar Branch Garmsar, Iran
Anisakiasis, Long tail tuna fish, Persian Gulf, Iran


Background:  The aim of this paper was to study the prevalence and intensity of Anisakids lar­vae in the long tail tuna fish captured from Iranian shores of Persian Gulf.Methods: Different organs including skin, abdominal cavity, stomach and intestinal contents, stom­ach sub serous tissues, liver, spleen, gonads and 20 grams of muscles of 100 long tail tuna fish (Thannus tonggol) caught from waters of the north parts of Persian Gulf were searched for anisakid nematodes larvae. Twenty grams of around the body cavity muscles were digested in artificial gastric juice. Different organs and digested muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of anisakids larvae. The collected larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol containing 5% glycerin, and cleared in lactophenol for identification.Results: Our findings revealed that 89% of fish harbored 3rd stage larvae of Anisakis sp. of which 2% were infected with both Anisakis and Raphidascaris. All inspected organs except that of skin were found to be infected, while stomach sub serous tissues were the most infected organ (80%) followed by abdominal cavity (10%), liver (4%), testicle (3%), stomach contents and  spleen (2%) and intestinal contents (1%). Intestine and abdominal cavity were the organs har­bored Raphidascaris sp. Digested muscles were free of parasite.  Mean intensity was low for both spe­cies and ranged between 1.5 for Raphidascaris sp. and   3.67 for Anisaki sp.Conclusion: Anisakids larvae especially Anisakis are very prevalent in some fish including tunas of Persian Gulf, and consumption of infected fish if it is not properly cooked may lead to human anisakiasis.


Eslami A, Anwar M, Khatibi Sh. Incidence and intensity of helminthose in pike (Esox lucius) of Caspian Sea (northern Iran).Riv It Piscic Ittiop.1972; 7(1): 1-14.

Eslam A, Kohnehshahri M. Study on the helminthiasis of Rutilus frisii katum from the south Caspian Sea. Acta Zool Patho Antverpienia. 1978;70:153-155.

Mokhayer B. A list of parasites of eusturgeon (Acipenseridae) in Iran. J Vet FacUniv Tehran. 1973; 29 (1):11– 12.

Farahnak A, Mobedi I, Tabibi R. Fish anisakid helminthes in Khuzestan province, south west of Iran. Iranian J Publ Health. 2002; 31(3,4):129 – 132.

Eslami A, Mokhayer B. Nematode larvae ofmedical importance found inmarket fish in Iran. Pahlavi Med J. 1977; 345-348.

Mokhayer B. Pseudotangue in snapper fish of Persian Gulf. Proc. 3rd Int Cong Parasitol.Monchen. 345-8.

Van Thiel PH,Kuipers FC,RoskamRT. A nematode parasitic to herring causing acute abdominal syndrome in man. Trop GeorgMed.1960;97-113.

Ishikura PH, Takahanshi S, Yagi K, Nakamura K, Kon S, Matsuura A. Epidemiology: global aspect of anisakidosis, Chiba (Japan) 1998. Int Cong Parasitol. ReportNo. ICOPAIX; 379-382.

Umehara A, Kawakami Y, Araki J, Uchida A. Molecular identification of the etiological agent of the human anisakiasis in Japan. Parasitol Int. 2007;58(3):211-5.

Kim SG, Jo YJ, ParkYS,KimSH, Song MH, LeeHH,KimJS,Ryou JW, Joo JE, and Kim DH. Four cases of gastric submucosal mass suspected as anisakiasis. Korean J Parasitol. 2006;44(1):81-86

Chai JY, Chu YM, SohnWM, Lee SH. Larval anisakids collected from the yellow corvine in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 1986;24(1):1-11.

Smith JW, Wootten R. Experimental study on themigration of Anisakis larvae (Nematoda, Ascaridida) into the flesh of herring, Clupea harengus L. Int J Parasitol. 1978; 5:133-136.

Mattiucci S, Nscetti G, Cianchi R, Paggi l, Arduino P, Margolis L. Brattey J, Webb SD, 'Amelio S, Orecchia P, BulliniL. Genetic and ecological data on Anisakis simplex complex with evidence for a new species (Nematoda, Anisakidae). J Parasitol. 1997;83:401-416.

Radfar. MH, Eslami A. Study on the helminth infections of Epinephlus tauvina of Persian Gulf, Iranian shores. 1st. Cong Dis Aqua Org Iran. 2000;.11-14 Ahwaz, Iran.

Munday BL, Sawada Y, Cribb T, Hyward CJ. Diseases of Tunas, Thunnus spp.J FishDis. 2003;187-206.

Doupe RG, Lymbery AJ, Wong S, Hobbs RP . Larval anisakid infections of some tropical fish species fro north-west Australia. J Helminthol. 2003; 77:363 –365.

Levsen A, Tore B. Anisakis simplex third stage larvae in Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea herringus L.) with emphasis on larval distribution in the flesh. Vet Parasitol. 2010; 171(3,4):247-253.

Abollo E, Pascul S. SEM study of Anisakis brevispiculata Dollfus, 1966 and Pseudoterranova ceticola (Deardoff Overstreet,1981) (Nematoda, Anisakidae), parasites ofpigmy spermwale, Kogia breviceps. Sci Mar. 2002; 66:249-255.

Costa G, Madeira A, Pontes T, Amelio D. Anisakid nematodes of blockspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, from Madeiran waters, Portugal. Acta Parasitol. 2004; 49 (2):156- 161.

Lester RJG, Adams JR. Gyrodactylus alexandri reproduction, mortality, and effect on its host Gasterosteus aculeatus. Canadian J Zool. 1974;52:827- 833.

Rohde K. Ecology of marine parasites. Walingford:CAB International;1993.

National Institute of infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases Control Division, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Foodborn helminthiases as emerging diseases in Japan. Infect Agents Surveillance Rep. 2004;25:114-115.

Euzeby, J. Sur quelque nematodes ascaridida, agent d’une zoonose helminthique d’actualite la “maladie du ver harrenge. Bull. Soc Vet Med Comp. 1972;74:359 – 371.

Cheng TC. Anisakiosis In: Palmer SR, Lord Soulsby EJl, Simpson DIH, editors Zoonosis. Oxford. Oxford University Press;1998.p. 827-831.

How to Cite
Eslami A, Sabokroo H, Ranjbar- Bahadori S. Infection of Anisakids Larvae in Long Tail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol) In North Persian Gulf. Iran J Parasitol. 6(3):96-100.