Evaluation of Three Different Laboratory Methods for Identifi-cation of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP) among HIV Positive Asymptomatic Prisoners
AbstractBackground: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. The aim of study was to find out P. jirovecii in versatile group of HIV-positive patients prisoners. Methods: Overall, 102 HIV positive patients from Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj, Iran from October 2016 to March 2017 without any respiratory symptoms were selected with different medication histories against HIV and PCP. Microscopic and molecular (qualitative real-time PCR) examination were applied on sputum specimens and serological investigation (β-D-glucan assay for fungal diseases) carried out on patient’s sera. Results: Only 3 and 1 patients were positive for PCP by microscopic and molecular testing, respectively. Twenty-four (23.5%) and 78 (76.5%) out of 102 patients were seropositive and seronegative for fungi disease, respectively. Seropositive patients were older than seronegative subjects (P<0.001). Most of seropositive individuals showed less mean value of CD4 counts compared to seronegative group (P<0.001). Of 54 patients who were under HIV therapy, 13 were seropositive compared to 11 out of 24 seropositives who were no adhere to treatment (P<0.001). In terms of prophylactic antibiotic therapy against PCP, of 24 patients who received prophylaxis, 3 (12.5%) and 21 (87.5%) were seropositive and seronegative, respectively (P<0.001). On the contrary, among 78 patients who did not receive prophylaxis, 21 (27%) and 57 (73%) belonged to seropositive and seronegative patients, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: There was no strong evidence for PCP infection/disease among symptomless, HIV positive patients. According to their mean CD4 counts, the hypothesis for being negative in a majority of applied tests would be the absence of severe immunosuppression in the patients.
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