Original Article

Genetic Identification of Echinococcus granulosus Isolates in Hamadan, Western Iran


Background: Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection and considered as a major economic and public health concern worldwide. This research was conducted to determine genotypic characteristics of livestock and human hydatid cyst isolates from Hamadan area, western Iran.

Methods: Sampling was conducted in Hamadan industrial slaughterhouse and Beast Hospital of Hamadan City, western Iran, from 2015 to 2016. Overall, 74 livestock isolates including 69 sheep, 3 cattle and 2 goats and 9 human hydatid cysts were genotyped by PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS1 region and followed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with four restriction endonuclease enzymes, RsaI, HpaII, AluI, and TaqΙ, and sequencing.

Results: The PCR amplicon size of each isolate was approximately 1 kb which was the same with that of sheep strain. According to the RFLP patterns, the isolates belonged to a single species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1–G3 complex). Furthermore, sequencing of representative amplicons confirmed that the RFLP-genotyped isolates corresponded to E. granulosus sensu stricto.

Conclusion: E. granulosus sensu stricto is the prevailing species of E. granulosus sensu lato in the region and pointed out the importance of sheep/dog cycle in human transmission.

Eckert J, Deplazes P. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. ‎Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004; 17(1):107-35.

Cardona GA, Carmena D. A review of the global prevalence, molecular epidemiology and economics of cystic echinococcosis in production animals. Vet Parasitol. 2013; 192(1):10-32.

Thompson RCA. The taxonomy, phylogeny and transmission of Echinococcus. Exp Parasitol. 2008; 119(4):439–46.

Rokni MB. Echinococcosis /hydatidosis in Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2009; 4(2):1-16.

Nakao M, McManus DP, Schantz PM, Craig PS, Ito A. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. Parasitology. 2007; 134(pt5):713–22.

Moks E, Jogisalu I, Valdmann H, Saarma U. First report of Echinococcus granulosus G8 in Eurasia and a reappraisal of the phylogenetic relationships of ‘genotypes’ G5–G10. Parasitology. 2008; 135(5):647–54.

Knapp J, Nakao M, Yanagida T, Okamoto M, Saarma U, Lavikainen A, et al. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): An inference from nuclear protein-coding genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011; 61(3):628–38.

Saarma U, Jogisalu I, Moks E, Varcasia A, Lavikainen A, Oksanen A, et al. A novel phylogeny for the genus Echinococcus, based on nuclear data, challenges relationships based on mitochondrial evidence. Parasitology. 2009; 136(3): 317–28.

Thompson RCA, McManus DP. Aetiology: parasites and life-cycles. In: Eckert J, Gemmell M, Meslin F-X, Pawlowski Z, eds. WHOI/OIE manual on echinococcosis in humans and animals: a public health problem of global concern. Paris: World Organisation for Animal Health, 2001: 1–19.

Harandi MF, Hobbs RP, Adams PJ, Mobedi I, Morgan-Ryan UM, Thompson RCA. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus of Human and Animal Origin in Iran. Parasitology. 2002; 125(pt4): 367-73.

Sharbatkhori M, Fasihi Harandi M, Mirhendi H, Hajialilo E, Kia EB. Sequence Analysis of cox1 and nad1 Genes in Echinococcus granulosus G3 Genotype in Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) from Central Iran. Parasitol Res. 2011; 108(3):521-7.

Sharbatkhori M, Tanzifi A, Rostami S, Rostami M, Harandi M. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Genopypes in Domestic Livestock and Humans in Golestan Province, Iran. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo. 2016; 58:38.

Parsa F, Fasihi Harandi M, Rostami S, Sharbatkhori M. Genotyping Echinococcus granulosus from dogs from Western Iran. Exp Parasitol. 2012; 132(2):308–12.

Shahnazi M, Hejazi H, Salehi M, Andalib AR. Molecular characterization of human and animal Echinococcus granulosus isolates in Isfahan, Iran. Acta Trop. 2011; 117(1):47–50.

Fallah M, Taherkhani H, Sajadi M. Echinococcosis in stray dogs in Hamedan, west of Iran. Iran J Med Sci. 1995; 29:170-2.

Fallah M, Matini M, Beygomkia E, Mobedi I. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis) in Hamadan Abattoir. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci. 2010; 17(3):5-12.

Rahimi H, Kia E, Mirhendi S, Talebi A, Harandi MF, Jalali-Zand N, et al. A new Primer Pair in ITS1 Region for Molecular Studies on Echinococcus granulosus. Iran J Public Health. 2007; 36(1):45-9.

Corpet F. Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988; 16(22):10881-90.

Dousti M, Abdi J, Bakhtiyari S, Mohebali M, Mirhendi S, Rokni MB. Genotyping of Hydatid Cyst Isolated from Human and Domestic Animals in Ilam Province, Western Iran Using PCR-RFLP. Iran J Parasitol. 2013; 8(1):47-52.

Bowles J, Blair D, McManus DP. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus. Parasitology. 1995; 110(pt3):317-28.

Bowles J, McManus DP. Rapid discrimination of Echinococcus species and strains using a polymerase chain reaction-based RFLP method. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1993; 57(2):231-9.

Alvarez Rojas CA, Romig T, Lightowlers MW. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans – review of current knowledge. Int J Parasitol. 2014; 44(1):9–18.

Kia EB, Rahimi H, Sharbatkhori M, Talebi A, Fasihi Harandi M, Mirhendi H. Genotype identification of human cystic echinococcosis in Isfahan, central Iran. Parasitol Res. 2010; 107(3):757–60.

Villalobos N, González LM, Morales J, de Aluja AS, Jiménez MI, Blanco MA, et al. Molecular identification of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes (G1 and G7) isolated from pigs in Mexico. Vet Parasitol. 2007; 147(1-2):185–189.

Andresiuk MV, Gordo FP, Saarma M, Elissondo MC, Taraborelli A, Casalongue C, et al. Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 dominated in cattle and sheep during 2003–2006 in Buenos Aires province, an endemic area for cystic echinococcosis in Argentina. Acta Trop. 2013; 127(2):136–42.

Mogoye BK, Menezes CN, Wong ML, Stacey S, von Delft D, Wahlers K, et al. First insights into species and genotypes of Echinococcus in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2013; 196(3-4):427-32.

Bardonnet K, Piarroux R, Dia L, Schneegans F, Beurdeley A, Godot V, et al. Combined Eco-Epidemiological and Molecular Biology Approaches to Assess Echinococcus granulosusTransmission to Humans in Mauritania: Occurrence of the ‘Camel’Strain and Human Cystic Echinococcosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002; 96(4):383-6.

Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA, Aradaib IE, et al. A Molecular Survey of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2010; 169(3-4):340-6.

Konyaev SV, Yanagida T, Nakao M, Ingovatova GM, Shoykhet YN, Bondarev AY, et al. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia. Parasitology. 2013; 140(13):1637–47.

Bart JM, Abdukader M, Zhang YL, Lin RY, Wang YH, Nakao M, et al. Genotyping of human cystic echinococcosis in Xinjiang, PR China. Parasitology. 2006; 133(pt5):571-9.

Vural G, Baca AU, Gauci CG, Bagci O, Gicik Y, Lightowlers MW. Variability in the Echinococcus granulosus Cytochrome C oxidase 1 mitochondrial gene sequence from livestock in Turkey and a re-appraisal of the G1–3 genotype cluster. Vet Parasitol. 2008; 154(3-4):347-50.

IssueVol 13 No 3 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Echinococcus granulosus Genotype Iran ITS1 Humans Livestock PCR-RFLP

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
MATINI M, ROOSTAEI M, FALLAH M, MAGHSOOD AH, SAIDIJAM M, FASIHI HARANDI M. Genetic Identification of Echinococcus granulosus Isolates in Hamadan, Western Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2018;13(3):423-429.