Original Article

Genetic Diversity in C-terminal of SERA5 Gene in the Blood Stage of Human Isolates of Plasmodium vivax in Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran


Background: Vivax malaria is more prevalent in the malarious areas of Iran, which makes vaccine research a high priority. Serine Repeat Antigens (SERA) have essential role in the parasite life cycle and high expression profiles of PvSERA5 make it suitable vaccine candidates. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of C-terminal region of PvSERA5 in Iranian isolates of Plasmodium vivax in Sistan and Baluchistan.

Methods: Totally, 49 blood samples were taken from symptomatic malaria patients in Sistan and Baluchistan Province in 2016. Mono-infection to P. vivax was confirmed by 18srRNA-Nested-PCR. Genomic DNA was extracted and C-terminal region of PvSERA5 was amplified by specific primers. PCR-products have been sequenced and analysis was done by using bioinformatics software, mainly DnaSP & MEGA5.

Results: Genetic diversity was calculated 14.8% in C-terminal region of PvSERA5 in Iranian isolates, 19 different sequences and 4 haplotypes existed. The amount of Tajima’s D (0.3805) and ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous mutation (1.82) showed that C-terminal region of PvSERA5 is under positive natural selection; also intragenic recombination could interfere.

Conclusion: Results could be helpful in any research, regarding this antigen as vaccine candidate in Iran or worldwide.

- World Health Organization. World Malaria report 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/en/

- Mueller I, Galinski MR, Baird JK, Carlton JM, Kochar DK, Alonso PL, del Portillo HA. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009; 9: 555–566.

- Nejati J, Vatandoost H, Oshaghi MA, Salehi M, Mozafari E, Moosa-Kazemi SH. Some ecological attribute of malaria vector Anopheles superpictus Grassi in endemic foci in southeastern Iran. Asian Pac J trop Biomed. 2013; 3(12): 1003-1008.

- Ehtesham R, Fazaeli A, Raeisi A, Keshavarz H, Heidari A. Detection of mixed-species infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax by nested PCR and rapid diagnostic tests in southeastern Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015; 93(1):181-5.

- World Health Organization. World Malaria report .Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/country-profiles/profile_irn_en.pdf

- Hartl DL. The origin of malaria: mixed messages from genetic diversity. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004; 1: 15–22.

- Takala SL, Plowe CV. Genetic diversity and malaria vaccine design, testing and efficacy: preventing and overcoming ‘vaccine resistant malaria’. Parasite

Immunol. 2009; 31: 560 –573.

- Valencia SH, Rodríguez DC, Acero DL, Ocampo V, Arévalo-Herrera M. Platform for Plasmodium vivax vaccine discovery and development. Mem Inst Oswaldo. 2011; 179–192.

- Miahipour A, Keshavarz H, Heidari A, Raeisi A, Rezaeian M, Rezaie S. Genetic variation of MSP-1 gene in Plasmodium vivax isolated from patients in hormozgan Province, Iran using SSCP-PCR. Iranian J Parasitol. 2012; 7(4):1-7.

- Heidari A, Keshavarz H, Hajjaran H, Ebrahimi SM, Kabir K, Naseri MH. Genetic Variation and Selection of Domain I of the Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) Gene in Clinical Isolates from Iran. Iranian J Parasitol. 2013; (4):536-544.

- Palacpac NM, Leung BW, Arisue N, Tanabe K, Sattabongkot J, Tsuboi T, Torii M, Udomsangpetch R, Horii T. Plasmodium vivax serine repeat antigen. (SERA) multigene family exhibits similar expression patterns in independent infections. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006; 2: 353–358.

- Rahul CN, Shiva Krishna K, Meera, Bai N, Kumar V, Phadke S, Rajesh. Plasmodium vivax: C-terminal diversity in the blood stage SERA genes from Indian field isolates. Exp Parasitol. 2013; 134: 82–91.

- Rahul CN, Shiva Krishna K, Meera, Krishna A, Meera M, Sandhya P , Vidya R. Plasmodium vivax: N-terminal diversity in the blood stage SERA genes

from Indian isolates. Blood Cells Mol Dis.2015; 55: 30–35.

- Kiefer MC, Crawford KA, Boley LJ, Landsberg KE, Gibson HL, Kaslow DC, Barr PJ. Identification and cloning of a locus of serine repeat antigen (sera)-related genes from Plasmodium vivax. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996; 78: 55–65.

- WHO: Control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria – A technical brief

July 2015. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/181162/1/9789241509244_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1

- Muellera I, Shakric AR, Chetan E, Chitnisc CE. Development of vaccines for Plasmodium vivax malaria.Vaccine. 2015; 33:7489–7495.

- Ferreira MU, Da Silva Nunes M, Wunderlich G. Antigenic diversity and immune evasion by malaria parasites. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004; 6: 987–995.

- Hughes AL. Positive selection and interallelic recombination at the merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-locus) of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biol Evol. 1992; 9: 381–393.

- Miller SK, Good RT, Drew DR, Delorenzi M, Sanders PR, Hodder AN, Speed T, Cowman‖ A, Koning-Ward T , Crabb B. A subset of Plasmodium falciparum SERA genes are expressed and appear to play an important role in the erythrocytic cycle. J Appl Biol Chem. 2002; 277(49):47524-32.

- Aoki S, Li J, Itagaki S, Okech B, Egwang T, Matsuoka H, Palacpac N, Mitamura T, Horii T. Serine repeat antigen (SERA5) is predominantly expressed among the SERA multigene family of Plasmodium falciparum, the acquired antibody titers correlate with serum inhibition of the parasite growth. J Appl Biol Chem. 2002; 277(49): 47533-47540.

- Escalante AA, Cornejo OE, Rojas A, Udhayakumar V, Lal AA. Assessing the effect of natural selection in malaria parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2004; 20: 388-395.

- West SA, Smith TG, Nee S, Read AF. Fertility insurance and the sex ratios of malaria and related hemospororin blood parasites. J Parasitol. 2002; 88(2):258-63.

IssueVol 13 No 3 (2018) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Plasmodium vivax PvSERA5 Genetic diversity Iran

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
ABOLGHAZI A, HEIDARI A, MOIN-VAZIRI V, HAGHIGHI A, SEYYED TABAEI SJ, KESHAVARZ H, SHOJAEE S. Genetic Diversity in C-terminal of SERA5 Gene in the Blood Stage of Human Isolates of Plasmodium vivax in Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2018;13(3):440-447.