Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Chicken, Beef, and Lamb Meat Consumed in Northwestern Iran
Background: Toxoplasma gondii, the obligate, intracellular parasite afflicts human in diverse ways such as ingestion of tissue cysts in undercooked meat. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and genotyping of Toxoplasma isolated from meat samples being consumed in East Azerbaijan, Northwest of Iran.
Methods: Overall, 150 samples including chicken, beef and lamb meat were collected from retailers in different regions of Tabriz, northwestern Iran during April to September 2014. Molecular detection was done by amplifying B1 gene and T. gondii surface antigen 2 (SAG2) loci. For genotyping of T. gondii, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed using Sau3AI and HhaI restriction enzymes. Finally, three positive isolate from each host was sequenced to evaluate and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: Overall, 26 (17.33%) samples were positive for T. gondii including 4 (8%) isolate from chicken, 8 (16%) isolates from cattle and 14 (28%) isolates from sheep. According to the RFLP patterns, sequencing and phylogenetic results, all of the samples were identified as genotype I.Conclusion: The results indicated a potential risk of transmission of the disease through the consumption of infected meat. This is particularly important especially for pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients and this suggests that the training on the prevention of infection is necessary.
Dubey JP. Strategies to reduce transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to animals and humans. Vet Parasitol. 1996; 64: 65-70.
Dubey JP. The history of Toxoplasma gondii-the first 100 years. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008; 55: 467-475.
Weiss LM, Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations. Int J Parasitol. 2009; 39: 895-901.
Rosso F, Les JT, Agudelo A, Villalobos C, Chaves JA, Tunubala GA, Messa A, Remington JS, Montoya JG. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Cali, Colombia, South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 78: 504-508.
Aspinall TV, Guy EC, Roberts KE, Joynson DH, Hyde JE, Sims PF. Molecular evidence for multiple Toxoplasma gondii infections in individual patients in England and Wales: public health implications. Int J Parasitol. 2003; 33: 97-103.
Mahami Oskouei M, Hamidi F, Talebi M, Farhoudi M, Taheraghdam AA, et al. The correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson’s disease: a case-control study. J Parasit Dis. 2016;40:872-6.
Mahami-Oskouei M, Hamidi F, Talebi M, Farhoudi M, Taheraghdam AA, et al. Toxoplasmosis and Alzheimer: can Toxoplasma gondii really be introduced as a risk factor in etiology of Alzheimer? Parasitol Res. 2016; 115:3169-74.
Khan A, Su C, German M, Storch G, Clifford D, Sibley LD. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains from immunocompromised patientsreveals high prevalence of type I strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43: 5881-7.
Pereira-Chioccola VL, Vidal JE, Su C. Toxoplasma gondii infection and cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. Future Microbiol. 2009; 4: 1363-79.
Howe DK, Honoré S, Derouin F, Sibley LD. Determination of genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from patients with toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35: 1411-14.
Howe DK, Sibley LD. Toxoplasma gondii comprises three clonal lineages: correlation of parasite genotype with human disease. J Infect Dis. 1995; 172: 1561-6.
Kim HY, Kim YA, Lee HS, Rhie HG, Cho SH, Yu JR, Lee SE. Genotype of Toxoplasma gondii from blood of stray cats in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2009; 47: 413-5.
Rahdar M, Samarbaf-Zadeh A, Arab L. Evaluating the Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Meat and Meat Products in Ahvaz by PCR Method. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012; 5: 570-573.
Tavalla M, Oormazdi H, Akhlaghi L, Shojaee S, Razmjou E, Hadighi R, Meamar AR. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from soil samples in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2013; 8(2): 227-233.
Fallah E, Hajizadeh M, Farajnia S, Khanmahammadi M. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of East Azerbaijan Province, North West of Iran During 2010-2011. Afr J Biotechnol. 2013; 10: 13631-13635.
Sharif M, Gholami S, Ziaei H, Daryani A, Laktarashi B, Ziapour SP, Rafiei A, Vahedi M. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered for food in Mazandaran province, Iran, during 2005. Vet J. 2007; 174: 422-4.
Zia-Ali N, Fazaeli A, Khoramizadeh M, Ajzenberg D, Dardé M, Keshavarz-Valian H. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains from different hosts in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2007; 101: 111-5.
Gallego C, Saavedra-Matiz C, Gómez-Marín JE. Direct genotyping of animal and human isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Colombia (South America). Acta Trop. 2006; 97: 161-167.
Habibi GR, Imani AR, Gholami MR, Hablolvarid MH, Behroozikhah AM, Lotfi M, et al. Detection and identification of Toxoplasma gondii type one infection in sheep aborted fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2012; 7: 64-72.
Khater H, Khalifa N, Barakat A. Serological and molecular studies of ovine and human toxoplasmosis with a trial of treatment of infected ewe. Sci J Vet Advance. 2013; 2: 157-168.
Schwab KJ, McDevitt JJ. Development of PCR enzyme immunoassay oligoprobe detection method for Toxoplasma gondii oocyst, incorporating PCR controls. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003; 69: 5819-5825.
Aspinall TV, Marlee D, Hyde JE, Sims PF. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in commercial meat products as monitored by polymerase chain reaction–food for thought? Int J Parasitol. 2002; 32: 1193-9.
Su C, Zhang X, Dubey J. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers: a high resolution and simple method for identification of parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2006; 36: 841-8.
Hamidi F, Etemadi J, Ghabouli Mehrabani N, Mahami Oskouei M, Motavalli R, Ardalan MR. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. J Coast Life Med. 2015; 3: 621-622.
Dumètre A, Dardé ML. How to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in environmental samples? FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003; 27: 651-661.
Alvarado-Esquivel C, Estrada-Martínez S, Pizarro-Villalobos H, Arce-Quiñones M, Liesenfeld O, Dubey J. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city. J Parasitol. 2011; 97: 40-43.
Dabritz H, Conrad P. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010; 57: 34-52.
Dubey JP, Velmurugan GV, Chockalingam A, Pena HF, De Oliveira LN, Leifer CA, Gennari SM, Bahia Oliveira LM, Su C. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2008; 157: 299-305.
Ergin S, Ciftcioglu G, Midilli K, Issa G, Gargili A. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii from meat and meat products by the nested-PCR method and its relationship with seroprevalence in slaughtered animals. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 2009; 53: 657-661.
Cristina N, Dardé ML, Boudin C, Tavernier G, Pestre-Alexandre M, Ambroise-Thomas P. A DNA fingerprinting method for individual characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains: combination with isoenzymatic characters for determination of linkage groups. Parasitol Res. 1995; 81: 32-37.
Boughattas S, Ben-Abdallah R, Siala E, Souissi O, Aoun K, Bouratbine A. Direct genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Tunisia (North Africa). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 82: 1041-1046.
Fuentes I, Rubio JM, Ramı́rez C, Alvar J. Genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain: direct analysis from clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39: 1566-1570.
Azizi H, Shiran B, Borjian-Boroujeni A, Jafari M. Molecular Survey of Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep, Cattle and Meat Products in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province, Southwest of Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2014; 9: 429-434.
Dubey JP, Navarro IT, Sreekumar C, Dahl E, Freire RL, Kawabata HH, Vianna MC, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infections in cats from Paraná, Brazil: seroprevalence, tissue distribution, and biologic and genetic characterization of isolates. J Parasitol. 2004; 90: 721-726.
Jiang HH, Huang SY, Zhou DH, Zhang XX, Su C, Deng SZ, Zhu XQ. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from pigs from different localities in China by PCR-RFLP. Parasit Vectors. 2013; 6: 227.
Lopes AP, Vilares A, Neto F, Rodrigues A, Martins T, Ferreira I, Gargaté MJ, Rodrigues M, Cardoso L. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal. Iran J Parasitol. 2015;10:465-472.
|Issue||Vol 12 No 1 (2017)|
|Toxoplasma gondii Surface antigen P22 Meat PCR Iran|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|