Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2015. 10(4):577-583.

The Potential of β Carbolin Alkaloids to Hinder Growth and Re¬verse Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum
Zaid O IBRAHEEM, Roslaini ABDUL MAJID, Sabariah MOHD NOOR, Hasidah MOHD SIDEK, Rusliza BASIR


Background: Nowadays, scourge of malaria as a fatalistic disease has increased due to emergence of drug resistance and tolerance among different strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has worsened the calamity as CQ is still considered the most efficient, safe and cost effective drug among other antimalarials. This urged the scientists to search for other alternatives or sensitizers that may be able to augment CQ action and reverse its resistance.

Method: Three β-carbolin derivatives, namely, harmalin, harmol and harmalol were tested for their anti-plasmodial and CQ resistance reversal effects against P. falciparum 3D7 and K1. SYBRE Green-1 based drug sensitivity assay and isobologram analysis were used to screen the mentioned effects respectively.

Results: All of them showed moderate anti-plasmodium effect and harmalin was the most effective as compared to the others in reversing CQ resistance and tolerance.

Conclusion: The mentioned phytochemicals are not ideal to be used as conven­tional anti-malarials and only harmalin can be suggested to reverse CQ resistance in P. falciparum K1.


Isobologram; β-carbolin; Chloroquine; Resistance; falciparum; SYBR green-I

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