Diagnosing Malaria Cases Referred to the Malaria Reference Labor¬atory in Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran
AbstractBackground: The number of malaria cases is declining worldwide; however, it remains as a serious health problem. Diagnosing unusual cases is the most important issue to manage the problem. This study designed to describe the number of falciparum and vivax malaria infected patients referred to Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science from 2000 to 2012.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on the collected questionnaires from each patient referred to the laboratory. Diagnosing results and demographic information for positive cases were analyzed using SPSS software. Problematic cases were evaluated for any difficulties in diagnosis or in clinical signs. Scanning and molecular methods were performed whenever there was an atypical case referred to the laboratory. Some of the samples had various difficulties for diagnosing such as presence of fussed gametocytes and schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum in peripheral blood and CCHF like hemoragic disorders.Results: Plasmodium vivax caused a large proportion of the cases (76.1%) in contrast with P. falciparum that included smaller proportion (22.8%) and the rest (1.1) belonged to mixed infection. Most of the positive cases (69.6%) were belonged to Afghani people. Men (94.6%) showed more infection than women (5.4%), moreover the most infection (44.5%) was seen at a range of 21-30 yr.Conclusion: In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to perform more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard conditions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the disease.
Fairhurst RM, Wellems TE. Malaria In: Text-book of infectious Disease Principles and Prac-tice of Infectious Diseases. Mandell: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett, Churchill Livigstone, An Imprint of Elsevier 7thed, 2009; 3437-3463.
Khalili MB, Anvari Tafti MH. Sadeh M. Epi-demiological Pattern of Malarial Disease in the Province of Yazd, Iran (Since 1986-2006). Word J Med Sci. 2009; 4 (1): 41-45.
World Malaria Report 2013. Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world _malaria_report_2013/en/
Bhattacharyya N, Mukherjee H, Bose D, Roy S, Das S, Tripathy S, Hati AK. Clinical Case of Artesunate Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Ma-laria in Kolkata: A First Report. J Trop Dis. 2014; 2:1.
Mita T, Tanabe K. Evolution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance: implications for the development and containment of artemisinin resistance. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:465-75.
Anvikar A R, Sharma B, Sharma SK, Ghosh SK, Bhatt RM, Kumar A, Mohanty SS, Pillai CR, Dash AP, Valecha N. In vitro assessment of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in five States of India. Indian J Med Res. 2012; 135: 494-499.
Rieckmann H, Davis DR, Hutton DC. Plasmo-dium vivax resistance to Chloroquine? Lancet. 1989; 2 (8673):1183-4.
Roll Back Malaria Final repot of the external evaluation of Roll Back Malaria. Achieving Im-pact: Roll Back Malaria in the Next Phase, No-vember; 2002.
Rezaei Hemami M. Akbari Sari A, Raeisi A, Vatandoost H, Majdzadeh R. Malaria Elimina-tion in Iran, Importance and Challenges. Int J Prev Med .2013; 4(1): 88–94.
Central of Disease Control. Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Annual report of ma-laria control department. Tehran. 2012; p. 50.
Bloland PB. Drug resistance in malaria. World Health Organization. Department of Communi-cable Disease Surveillance and Response. 2001. Available from: WHO/CDS/CSR/DRS/2001.4
World Health Organization. Basic Malaria Mi-croscopy Part1. Learner’s guide. 2nd edition. 2010.
Nateghpour M, Abed Khojasteh H, Keshavarz H, Hajjaran H, Edrissian Gh, Rahimi A, Go-bakhloo N. Comparison of microscopical ex-amination and semi-nested multiplex polymer-ase chain reaction in diagnosis of Plasmodium fal-ciparum and P. vivax. EMHJ. 2011; 17 (1): 51-55.
Sargolzaie N, Salehi M, Kiani M, Sakeni M, Hassanzehi A . Malaria Epidemiology in Sistan and Balouchestan Province during April 2008-March 2011; Iran. Zahedan Journal of Re-search in Medical Sciences. 2013; 16 (4): 41-43.
Youssefi MR, Rahimi MT. Prevalence of ma-laria infection in Sarbaz, Sistan and Baluchistan
province. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1 (6):491-492.
Ghaffari S, Mahdavi SA, Moulana Z, Mouodi S, Karimi-Nia H, Bayani M, Kalantari N. Malaria in Mazandaran, Northern Iran: Passive case Finding During 1997-2012. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7(3):82-88.
Saghafipour A, Noorozi M, Karami-jooshin M, Poudat A. Epidemiological Features of Malaria in Qom province from 2001 to 2011. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2012;14 (8):70-73.
Karimi-Zarchi A, Mahmudzadeh A, Vatani H, Shirbazu SH. Epidemiological Evaluation of malaria and vectors in Sarakhs boundary vil-lages. Persian. Iran J Infect Trop Dis. 2004;8 (20):47-50.
Schmidt GD, Roberts′ LS. Foundations of para-sitology. Florida International University. In-ternational 8th ed. USA. 2006.