Ginger and cinnamon: can this household remedy treat giardiasis? Parasitological and histopathological studies.
AbstractBackground: Giardia lamblia is one of the most common protozoal infections in human especially children. Metronidazol (MTZ) is the drug of choice for treatment of giardiasis; its chemical composition possesses major threats and is becoming less sensitive. This study aimed to search for natural extracts alternative to MTZ.Methods: In-vivo effects of dichloromethane extracts of ginger and cinnamon in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day separately were studied on 30 experimentally infected albino rats divided into 6 groups (5 rats each). Plant extracts were started on the 6th day post infection for 7 successive days. The study was evaluated by fecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts, histopathology, scanning and transmission electron microscopic examinations of the small intestinal mucosa.Results: Ginger and cinnamon caused reduction of fecal cyst and trophozoites counts. Histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to each extract revealed evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damage produced by G. lamblia infection and direct structural injury to the trophozoites. However, these results were more obvious after exposure to cinnamon extracts.Conclusion: We confirmed the potential therapeutic effects of ginger and cinnamon extracts on G. lamblia infection in albino rats as a promising alternative therapy to the commonly used antigiardial drugs.
Tian H, Chen B, Wen J. Giardiasis, drug resistance and target discovery. Infect Disorders Drug Targets. 2010; 10:259-302.
Mineno T, Avery MA. Giardiasis: Recent progress in chemotherapy and drug development. Curr Pharmaceut Design. 2003; 9(11):841-55.
Lars-Eckmann A. Mucosal defences against Giardia. Parasite Immunology. 2003; 25:259-270.
Troeger H, Epple H, Schneider T, Wahnschaffe U, Ullrich R, Burchard G, Jelinek T, Zeitz M, Fromm M, Schulzke J. Effect of chronic Giardia lamblia infection on epithelial transport and barrier function in human duodenum. Gut. 2007; 56(3):328-335.
Wright JM, Dunn LA, Upcroft P, Upcroft JA. Efficacy of antigiardial drugs. Expert Opin Durg Saf. 2003; 2(6):529-41.
Hoste H, Torres-Acosta JF, Alonso-Diaz MA., Brunet S, Sandoval-Castro C, Adote SH. Identification and validation of bioactive plants for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. Proc. of 5th International Workshop: Novel Approaches to the Control of Helminth Parasites of Livestock. Tropical Biomedicine. 2008; 25(1 Supplement):56-72.
Nandi S, Saleh-e-In M, Rahim M, Bhuiyan NH, Sultana N, Ahsan A, Ahmed S, Siraj S, Rahman Z, Kumar Roy S. Quality composition and biological significance of the bangladeshi and china ginger (zingiber officinale). JMBFS. 2013; 2(5):2283-2290.
Jeena K, Liju VB, Kuttan R. Antioxidant, antiinflammatory and Antinociceptive activities of essential oil from ginger. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013; 57(1):51–62.
Sadhana S, Gupta AK. Evaluation of Phenolics Content, Flavonoids and Antioxidant activity of Curcuma amada (Mango Ginger) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger). Research and Reviews. J Chem. 2013; 2(1):32-35.
Abdalla SF, Ramadan NI, Mohamed MAA, El- Deeb HK, Al-Khadrawy FM, Badawy AF. A study on the effect of Myrtus Communis and Olibanum on Giardia lamblia infection in Egypt. P U J. 2011; 4(1):89-100.
Sanderson L, Bartlett A, Whitfield PJ. In-vitro and in-vivo study on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult Schistosomes and their egg production. J Helminthol. 2002; 76(3):241-7.
El-Melegy MA, El-Saify GH, Hassab-El-Nabi SE. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of ginger compared to flubendazole on experimental trichinelosis in mice. Egyp J Med Sci. 2006;27(2):25-48.
Merawin LT, Arifah AK, Sani RA, Somchit MN, Zuraini A, Ganabadi S, Zakaria ZA. Screening of microfilaricidal effects of plant extracts against Dirofilaria immitis. Res Vet Sci. 2010; 88(1):142-7.
Moazeni M, Nazer A. In-vitro lethal effect of Zingiber officinale on protoscolices of hydatid cyst from sheep liver. Microbiology Research. 2011; 2(25):91-94. DOI: 10.4081/mr.2011.e25.
Wondrak GT, Villeneuve NF, amore SD, Bause AS, Jiang T, Zhang DD. The Cinnamon- derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells. Molecules. 2010; 15(5):3338-3355.
Wei A, Shibamoto T. Antioxidant/Lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and chemical compositions of selected essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 8:(12):7218-7225.
Chaudhary SS, Imtiyaz S, Tariq M. Cinnamon: A Common Medicinal Spice. Am J Pharm Tech Res. 2013; 3(2):2249-3387
Zenner L, Callait MP, Granier C, Chauve C. In vitro effect of essential oils from Cinnamomum aromaticum, Citrus limon and Allium sativum on two intestinal flagellates of poultry, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. Parasite-Journal de la societe Francaise de Parasitologie. 2003; 10(2):153-157.
Abu El Ezz NM, Khalil FA, Shaapan RM. Therapeutic effect of onion (Allium cepa) and Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) oils on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected mice. Global Veterinaria. 2011; 7(2):179-183.
El-Menshawi B. The Use of Biotechnological Methods for Drug Discovery from Egyptian Plants. Technical Report Phase I Cairo Acad Sci Res & Technol. 2003; 361-366.
Abdel-Fattah NS, Nada OH. Effect of Propolis versus metronidazol and their combined use in treatment of acute experimental giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007; 37(2):691-710.
Fathy FM. Effect of mirazid (Commiphora molmol) on experimental giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011; 41(1):55-177.
Drury RAB, Wallington EA. Carleton histological technique. 5th ed. Oxford University press. New York: Toronto; 1980.
Hummadi LA. Adverse effects of Soriatane on rats enterocytes, light microscopy and ultra-structural studies. J Cytol Histol. 2012; 3(1):133. Doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000133.
Sawangjaroen N, Subhadhirasakul S, Phongpaichit S, Siripanth C, Jamjaroen K, Sawangjaroen K. The in-vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for selfmedication by AIDS patients in Southern Thailand. Parasitol Res. 2005; 95(1):17-21.
Sohni YR, Kaimal P, Bhatt RM. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against E. histolytica in-vitro and in-vivo. J Ethenopharmacol. 1995; 45(1):43-52.
Choi KM, Gang J, Yun J. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii RH strain activity of herbal extracts used in traditional medicine. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008; 32:360-2. Doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.04.012.
Ortega E, Ward H, Keusch G, Pereira M. Growth inhibition of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia by a dietary lectin is associated with arrest of the cell cycle. J Clin Inves. 1994; 94(6):2283-88.
Tripathi DM, Gupta N, Lakshmi V. Antigiardial and immunostimulatory effect of Piper longum on giardiasis due to Giardia lamblia. Phytother Res. 1999; 13(7):561-65.
Jiménez-Arellanes A, Luna-Herrera J, Ruiz-Nicolás R, Cornejo-Garrido J, Tapia A, Yépez-Mulia L. Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea Americana seeds. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013; 13:109-118.
Elhadi IM, Koko WS, Dahab MM, El Imam YM, Abdu El Mageed MA. Antigiardial Activity of some Cucurbita Species and Lagenaria siceraria. Journal of Forest Products & Industries. 2013; 2(4):43-47.
Buret AG. Immunopathology of giardiasis: The role of lymphocytes in intestinal epithelial injury and malfunction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005; 100(1):185-90.
Scott KGE, Logan MR, Klammer GM, Teoh DA, Buret AG. Jejunal brush border microvillous alteration in Giardia muris infected mice: Role of T-lymphocyte and interleukin-6. Infec Immun. 2000; 68(6):3412-3418.
Chin AC, Teoh DA, Scott K GE. Strain dependent induction of enterocyte apoptosis by Giardia lamblia disrupts epithelial barrier function in a caspase 3 dependent manner. Infect Immun. 2002; 70 (7): 3673-3680. Doi: 10.1128/IAI.70.7.3673-3680.
Khanna R, Joshi K, Kum-Kum A, Malik AK, Vinayak VK. An ultrastructural analysis of changes in the surface architecture of intestinal mucosa following Giardia lamblia infection inmice. J Gastroenterol. 1990; 25(5):649-658.
Buret A, Gall DG, Olson ME. Effect of murine giardiasis on growth, intestinal morphology and saccharidase activity. J Parasitol. 1990; 76:403-9.
Ponce-Macotela M, Rufi no-González Y, González-Maciel A, Reynoso-Robles R, Martínez-Gordillo MN. Oregano (Lippia spp.) kills Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in vitro: antigiardiasic activity and ultrastructural damage. Parasitol Res. 2006; 98:557-560.
Cheville NF. Ultrastructural pathology: The comparative cellular basis of disease. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell. A John Wiley of Sons: Inc USA; 2009.
Robbins C. Pathological Basis of Disease. 5th ed. International edition: WB; 1995.
Mallavarapu RG, Ramesh S, Chandrasekhara RS, Rajeswara R, Kaul PN, Bhattacharya AK. Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Flavour and Fragrance J. 1995; 10:233-286.
Kim YS, Ho SB. Intestinal goblet cells and mucins in health and disease: Recent Insights and Progress. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2010; 12(5):319–330. Doi: 10.1007/s11894-010- 0131-2.
Venkatesa P, Finch RG, Wakelin D. A. comparison of mucosal inflammatory responses toGiardia muris in resistant B10 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Parasite Immunology. 1997; 9:137-143.
Abdul Rahuman A, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K, Bagavan A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother Res. 2008; 22(8):1035-9. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.2423.
Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A. Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Z. officinale (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008; 46:409-420.
Rong X, Peng G, Suzuki T. A. 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2 0 0 9 ; 5 4 : 1 1 8 - 2 3 .