Iranian Journal of Parasitology 2015. 10(1):56-61.

Seroepidemiological survey of human visceral leishmaniasis in ilam province, west of iran in 2013.
Jahangir Abdi, Behnaz Akhoundi, Mehdi Mohebali, Abolhasan Ghaderipour, Zahra Kakoee, Faezeh Najafi



Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as one of the most important human parasitic disease is endemic in some parts of Iran. Several cases of VL have been reported recently in the Ilam Province. The current study aimed to assess the pre-sent status of human VL in the region.


A random cluster sampling method was used to collect 456 serums samples from the children up to 12 years of age and 10% of adults living in urban and rural areas of the province. All the collected serum samples were tested by di-rect agglutination test (DAT) to detect anti- Leishmania infantum antibodies.


Of the examined 456 serum samples with direct agglutination test (DAT), only 21 (0.43%) sera showed anti- Leishmania antibodies at titers 1:400 and higher. Distribution of anti- Leishmania antibodies titers were: 1:400(n=4), 1:800(n=11), 1:1600(n=3), 1:3200(n=1), and 1:6400(n=1). Individuals with titers ≥1:3200 showed clinical signs and symptoms such as fever and splenomegaly. The highest and lowest seropositivity were observed in the age groups of 5–9 and >15 years old, respectively. There were no significant difference between the rate of seroposi-tivity in males and females.

Conclusion:VL with a low prevalence circulates in some parts of Ilam province, particularly in the southern parts. Complementary studies should be needed to find animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Furthermore,


Human; Iran; Seroprevalence; Visceral leishmaniasis

Full Text:



Pearson RD, Sousa AQ. Clinical spectrum of Leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:1-13.

Arevalo J. Influence of Leishmania (viannia) spe-cies on the response to antimonial treatment in patients with american tegumentary leishmani-asis. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1846-51.

Mohebali M. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Re-view of the Epidemiological and Clinical Fea-tures. Iran J Parasitol. 2013;8(3):348-58.

Mohebali M. Epidemiological Status of Vis-ceral Leishmaniasis in Iran: Experiences and Review of Literature. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2012:S3:003.

François C, Shyam S, Asrat H, Hashim G, Su-man R, Rosanna WP, et al. Visceral leishmania-sis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Microbiology. 2007;5:873-82.

Desjeux P. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;27(5):305-18.

Boelaert M. Visceral leishmaniasis control: a public health perspective. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94:465-71.

Seaman J, Mercer AJ, Sondorp E. The epi-demic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Up-per Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Int J Epidemiol. 1996; 25:862-71.

Hajjaran H, Mohebali M, Mamishi S, Vasigheh F, Oshaghi MA, Naddaf SR, et al. Molecular Identification and Polymorphism Determina-tion of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis Agents Isolated from Human and Animal Hosts in Iran. Bio Med Res Int. 2013.

Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Hamzavi Y, Mobedi I, Arshi S, Zarei Z. Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Islamic Re-public of Iran. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129:243-51.

Mohebali M, Edrissian Gh, Shirzadi MR, Ak-houndi B, Hajjaran H, Zarei Z, et al. An ob-servational study on the current distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in different geographical zones of Iran and implication to health policy. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2011;9(2):67-74.

Mohebali M, Poormohammadi B, Kanani A. Gerbillidae and Cricitidae, other animal hosts of visceral leishmaniasis in Meshkin-shahr dis-trict of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 1998;4 234-8.

Hamzavi Y, Hamzeh B, Mohebali M, Ak-houndi B, Ajhang K, Khademi N, et al. Hu-man Visceral Leishmaniasis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran, During 2011-2012. Iran J Parasitol. 2012;7(4):49-56.

Mohebali M, Edrisian Gh, Keshavarz H, Mo-hajeri M, Hajaran H, Akhundi B. Seroepide-

miological survey of visceral leishmaniasis using Direct agglutination test(DAT) in Bojnord ( north Khorasan). J Epidemiol. 2007;4(3):43-50.

Sarkari B, Moshfe A, Pedram N, Mohebali M, Akhoundi B. Seroepidemiologic survey of vis-ceral leishmaniasis in Boirahmad city. Journal of Armaghane Danesh. 2006;12(2): 69-77.

Hameed Gani Z, Meaad Kadhum H, Abdul-Mohsin HJ. Sero-epidemiological study of Vis-ceral Leishmaniasis in Basrah, Southern Iraq. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:464-9.

Ayllon A, Tesouro MA, Amusategui I, Villaes-cusa A, Rodriguez-Franco F, Sainza A. Sero-logic and Molecular Evaluation of Leishmania infantum in Cats from Central Spain. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2008;1149:361-4.

Mohebali M, Hajjaran H, Hamzavi Y, Mobedi I, Arshi S, Zarei Z, et al. Epidemiological as-pects of canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Is-lamic Republic of Iran. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129 243-51.

Avizeh R, Mohebali M, Sheikholslami M. Seroepidemiological investigation of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs of Ahvaz district, Iran. Arch Razi Institute. 2007;62(1):31-7.

Khanmohammadi M, Fallah E, Rahbari S, Sohrabi I, Farshchian M, Hamzavi F. Seroepi-demiological survey of canine visceral leish-maniasis in Sarab District, East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest of Iran in 2009. Afr J Mi-crobiol Res. 2010;4(19):2022-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.