Phenolic Acid Composition and Anti-Parasitic Effects of Four Peu¬cedanum Species on Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites
AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to determine phenolic acid composition and anti-parasitic effects of Peucedanum caucasicum, P. palimbioides, P. longibracteolatum and P. chryseum on Entamoeba histolytica.Methods: Methanol extracts of the plant species were prepared by soxhlet extraction. Phenolic acid compositions were determined by HPLC. Anti-proliferative effect of extracts on trophozoites was determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test. For counting the cells, approximately a hundred of E. histolytica trophozoites were examined in each time. The data were presented as mean values with standard deviations and analyzed by repeated measures of ANOVA followed by Tukey test for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. The P-value was set at 0.05 for significance level.Results: All of the extracts showed a time and dose dependent amoebicidal action on trophozoites. Among the extracts tested, P. longibracteolatum showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites. As expected, this plant species also exhibited time and dose dependent activity on the trophozoites. At 4.0 mg/ml extract concentration, all of the trophozoites were killed by the extract in 72nd hour. Gallic (11.144 mg/g), P-hydroxybenzoic (17.646 mg/g), and o-coumaric acids (14.442 mg/g) were determined as the major phenolic acids of P. longibracteolatum. Gallic and P-hydroxybenzoic acids found in P. longibracteolatum could not be determined in other extracts. Therefore, high activity potential of this plant could probably be attributed to the presence of these phytochemicals.Conclusion: P. longibracteolatum can be further evaluated as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of Entamoeba infections.
Stanley SL. Amoebiasis. Lancet. 2003; 361 (9362): 1025–34.
Marion S, Guillén N. Genomic and proteomic approaches highlight phagocytosis of living and apoptotic human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica, Int J Parasitol. 2006; 36(2): 131–9.
Ackers JP, Mirelman D. Progress in research on Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006; 9(4): 367–73.
Stanley SL. Pathophysiology of amoebiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2001; 17(6): 280–5.
WHO, WHO/PAHO/UNESCO report. A consultation with experts on amoebiasis, Mex-ico City, Mexico; 1997.p.28–9.
Mondal D, Petri WA, Sack RB, Kirkpatrick BD. Haque R. Entamoeba histolytica-associated diarrheal illness is negatively associated with the growth of preschool children: evidence from a prospective study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006; 100(11): 1032–8.
Petri WA, Haque R, Mann BJ. The bittersweet interface of parasite and host: lectin-carbohy-drate interactions during human invasion by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Ann Rev Mi-crobiol. 2002; 56(1): 39–64.
Petri WA. Therapy of intestinal protozoa. Trends Parasitol. 2003; 19(11): 523–6.
Stanley SL. Progress towards an amoebiasis vaccine. Parasitol Today. 1996; 12(1): 7-14.
Alonso-Paz E, Cerdeiras MP, Fernandez J, Ferreira F, Moyna P, Soubes , Vazquez A, Veros S, Zunno L. Screening of Uruguan me-dicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Eth-anopharmacol. 1995; 45(1): 67-70.
Alavi SHR, Yassa N. Shafiee A. A new furano-coumarin from Peucedanum ruthenicum. Pharm Biol. 2008; 46(6): 377-9.
Chamberlain DF. Peucedanum L. In: Davis PH. editor. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Is-lands. Edinburgh University Press, 1972.p. 473-81.
Davis PH, Mill RR, Tan K. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Edinburgh Uni-versity Press. 1988.Volume 10.
Pimenov MG, Leonov MV. The Asian Umbel-liferae biodiversity database (ASIUM) with par-ticular reference to South-West Asian taxa. Turk J Bot. 2004; 49: 219-23.
Parolly G, Nordt B. Peucedanum isauricum (Apiaceae), a striking new species from S Ana-tolia, with notes on the related P. graminifolium and P. spreitzenhoferi. Willdenowia. 2004; 34(2): 135-44.
Parolly G, Nordt B. A further new Peucedanum species (Apiaceae) from the Taurus Mts, Tur-key. Willdenowia. 2005; 34(1): 97-105.
Akpulat HA, Akalın E. Peucedanum ozhatayiorum (Apiaceae), a new species from NE Turkey. Ann Bot Fenn. 2010; 47(1): 59-62.
Lu M, Nicoletti M, Battinelli L. Isolation of praeruptorins A and B from Peucedanum praerup-torum Dunn and their general pharmacological evaluation in comparison with extracts of the drug. Il Farmaco. 2001; 56(5-7): 417-20.
Schillaci D, Venturella F, Venuti F. Antimicro-bial and antiproliferative activity of Peucedanum nebrodense (Guss.) Strohl. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(1): 99-101.
Wu XL, Li Y, Kong LY. Two compounds from Peucedanum dissolutum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2004; 6(4): 301-5.
Fraternale D, Giamperi L, Ricci D. Composi-tion of the essential oil of Peucedanum verticillare. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2000; 28(2): 143-7. 22. Degerli S, Tepe B, Celiksoz A, Malatyali E. In vitro amoebicidal activity of Origanum syriacum and O. laevigatum on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites. Exp Parasitol. 2012; 131(1):20-4. 23. Degerli S, Tepe B, Malatyali E. Amoebicidal activity of the rhizomes and aerial parts of Al-lium sivasicum on Entamoeba histolytica. Parasitol Res. 2012; 111(1): 59-64.
Degerli S, Malatyali E, Tepe B. Screening of the in vitro amoebicidal activities of Pastinaca armenea
Degerli & Tepe: Phenolic Acid Composition and Anti-Parasitic Effects of Four Peucedanum Species …
Available at: http://ijpa.tums.ac.ir 431
(Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) and Inula oculus-christi (L.) on Acanthamoeba castellani cysts and trophozo-ites. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(2): 565-70.
Malatyali E, Tepe B, Degerli S. In vitro amoe-bicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellani cysts and trophozoites. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(6): 2175-80.
Malatyali E, Tepe B, Degerli S, Akpulat HA. In vitro amoebicidal activity of four Peucedanum species on Acanthamoeba castellani cysts and trophozoites. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(1): 167-74.
Tepe B, Degerli S, Arslan S, Malatyali E, Sarikurkcu C. Determination of Chemical Pro-file, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protection and Antiamoebic Activities of Teucrium polium and Stachys iberica. Fitoterapia. 2011; 82(2): 237-46.
Tepe B, Malatyali E, Degerli S. In vitro amoe-bicidal activities of Teucrium polium and T. chamaedrys on Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts. Parasitol Res. 2012; 110(5): 1773-8.
Goze I, Dag S, Tepe, Polat Z. In vitro amoe-bicidal activity of Salvia staminea and S. caespitosa on Acanthamoeba castellani and their cytotoxic potentials on corneal cells. J Ocular Pharm Ther. 2009; 25(3): 293-8.
Akin Polat Z, Tepe B, Vural A. In vitro amoe-bicidal activity of Thymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus on Acanthamoeba castellani and its cy-totoxic potential on corneal cells. Parasitol Res. 2007; 101(6): 1551-55.
Akin Polat Z, Vural A, Tepe B, Cetin A. In vitro amoebicidal activity of four Allium species on Acanthamoeba castellani and their cytotoxic potentials on corneal cells. Parasitol Res. 2007; 101(2): 397-402.
Akin Polat Z, Vural A, Ozan F, Tepe B, Ozce-lik S, Cetin A. In vitro effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on Acanthamoeba castellani and its cytotoxic potential on corneal cells. J Ocular Pharm Ther. 2008; 24(1):8-14.
Arrieta J, Reyes B, Calzada F, Cedillo-Rivera R, Amoebicidal and giardicidal compounds from the leaves of Zanthoxylum liebmannianun. Fitot-erapia. 2001; 72(3): 295–7.
Kayser O, Kiderlen AF, Croft SL, Natural products as antiparasitic drugs. Parasitol Res. 2003; 90(2): 55–62.
Said Fernández S, Ramos Guerra MC, Marta Cárdenas BD, Vargas Villarreal J, Villarreal Treviño L. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana. Fitoterapia, 2005; 76(5): 466–8.
Sokmen A, Jones BM, Erturk M. The in vitro antibacterial activity of Turkish plants. J Eth-nopharmacol. 1999; 67(1): 79–86.
Ozturk N, Tuncel M, Tuncel NB, Determina-tion of phenolic acids by a modified HPLC: Its application to various plant materials. J Liq Chromatogr RT. 2007; 30(4): 587–96.
Robinson GL. The laboratory diagnosis of human parasitic amoebae. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1968; 62(2): 285–94.
Swetman SC. Martindale. In: The Complete Drug Reference, 33rd ed. Pharmaceutical Press, London, 2002; pp. 594.
Kapoor K, Chandra M, Nag D. Evaluation of metronidazole toxicity: a prospective study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1999; 19(3): 83–8.
Orozco E, Lopez C, Gomez C, Perez DG, Marchat L, Banuelos C, Delgadillo DM. Multi-drug resistance in the protozoan parasite Enta-moeba histolytica. Parasitol Int. 2002; 51(4): 353–9.
Samarawickrema NA, Brown DM, Upcroft JA, Thammapalerd N, Upcroft P. Involvement of superoxide dismutase and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase in mechanisms of metronida-zole resistance in Entamoeba histolytica. J Antimi-crob Chemother. 1997; 40(6): 833–40.
Rani D. Plant extracts with antiamoebic prop-erties: A theoretical study with reference to En-tamoeba histolytica. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 2011; 3(2): 1113-7.