A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran
AbstractBackground: We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology.Methods: The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs).Results: Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.
Baneth G, Mathew JS, Shkap V, Macintire DK, Barta JR, Ewing SA. Canine hepatozoonosis: two disease syndromes caused by separate Hepatozoon spp. Trends Parasitol. 2003; 19(1):27–31.
Baneth G, Samish M, Alekseev E, Aroch I, Shkap V. Transmission of Hepatozoon canis to dogs by naturally-fed or percutaneously-injected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. J Parasitol. 2001; 87(3):606–611.
Barton CL, Russo EA, Craig T.M, Green RW. Canine hepatozoonosis: a retrospective study of 15 naturally occurring cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1985; 21: 125–134.
Baneth G, Harmelin A, Presentey BZ. Hepatozoon canis infection in two dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995; 206(12):1891–1894.
O'Dwyer LH, Massard CL, Pereira de Souza JC. Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2001; 94(3):143-50.
Baneth G, Weigler B. Retrospective case-control study of hepatozoonosis in dogs in Israel. J Vet Intern Med. 1997; 11(6):365– 370.
Elias E, Homans PA. Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs: clinical and haematological findings treatment. J Small Anim Pract. 1988; 29: 55–62.
James SP. On a parasite found in the white corpuscles of the blood of dogs. Sci Mem Offrs Med Sanit Deps India. 1905;14: 1-12.
Khoshnegah J, Mohri M, Movassaghi AR, Kazemi Mehrjerdi H. The first report of Hepatozoon canis infection of a dog in Iran. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2009; 18: 455–458.
Garcia de Sá A, Figueiredo Cerqueira AM, O’Dwyer LH, Abreu FS, Ferreira RF, Müller Pereira A, Velho PB, Rubini AS, Pereira Almosny NR. Detection of Hepatozoon spp. inNaturally Infected Brazilian Dogs by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2007; 5(2):49-51.
Rubini AS, dos Santos Paduan K, Von Ah Lopes V, O'Dwyer LH. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil. J Parasitol Res. 2008; 102(5):895-9.
Mylonakisa ME, Koutinasa AF, Billinisb C, Leontidesc LS, Kontosd V, Papadopoulosb O, Rallisa T, Fytiano A. Evaluation of cytology in the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): a comparison between five methods a comparison between five methods. Vet Microbiol. 2003; 91: 197–204.
Baneth G, Shkap V, Presentey BZ, Pipano E. Hepatozoon canis: the prevalence of antibodies and gametocytes in dogs in Israel. Vet Res Commun. 1996; 20(1):41–46.
Karagenc TI, Pasa S, Kirli G, Hosgor M, Bilgic HB, Oz YH. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2006; 135: 113–119.
Murata T, Shimoda K, Inoue M, Shiramizu K, Kanoe M, Taura Y, Nakama S. Seasonal periodical appearance of Hepatozoon canis gamont in the peripheral blood. J Vet Med Sci. 1993; 55: 877–879.
Baneth G, Shkap V, Samish M, Pipano E, Savitsky I. Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 1998; 74(2-4):299–305.
Gonen L, Strauss-Ayali D, Shkap V, Vincent- Johnson N, Macintire DK, Baneth G. An enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to Hepatozoon canis. Vet Parasitol. 2004; 122(2):131–139.
Gavazza A, Bizzeti M, Papini R. Observations on dogs found naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in Italy. Revue Méd Vét. 2003; 154: 565-571.
Razmi GR, Naghibi A, Aslani MR, Dastjerdi K, Hossieni H. An epidemiological study on Babesia infection in small ruminants in Mashhad suburb, Khorasan province, Iran. Small Rumin Res. 2003; 50(1):39-44.
Rioux JA, Golvan YJ, Honin R. Mixed Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania canis infection in a dog in the Sets area, France. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 1964; 39:131-135.
Ogunkoya AB, Adeyanju JB, Aliu YO. Experiences with the use of Imizol in treating canine blood parasites in Nigeria. J Small Anim Pract. 1981; 22: 775–777.
Gossett KA, Gaunt SD, Aja DS. Hepatozoonosis and ehrlichiosis in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1985; 21: 265– 267.
Kontos VJ, Koutinas AF. Clinical observations in 15 spontaneous cases of canine babesiosis. Canine Pract. 1997; 22: 30–34.
Willard MD, Tvedten H (2004). Small animal clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 417–418.