Detection and Identification of Toxoplasma gondii Type One Infection in Sheep Aborted Fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran
AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to apply the nested-PCR and bioassay methods in detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii infection in provided sheep aborted fetus samples from Qazvin Province of Iran.Methods: Eighteen sheep aborted fetal samples were studied by nested-PCR-RFLP, histopathological observation and microbiological assay. Bioassay in mice was carried out by inoculating the brain samples intraperitoneally.Results: The results demonstrated the frequency of 66% infected sheep aborted fetal samples with T. gondii type one. Although we could not isolate any parasite from inoculated mice even after three passages, but it was confirmed histopathologically formation of cyst like bodies in prepared mice brain sections.Conclusion: The results of the performed nested-PCR and formation of brain cyst in inoculated mice exhibited that T. gondii type one infection might be considered as one of the major causative agents for abortion in ewes.
Dubey JP, Beattie CP. Toxoplasmosis of animals and man. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1988 pp.1–220.
Buxton D. Ovine toxoplasmosis: a review. J R Soc Med. 1990; 83(8): 509-11.
Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol. 2000; 30: 1217-1258.
Remington JS, Thulliez P, Montoya JG. Recent developments for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(3):941-5.
Garcia JL, Gennari SM, Machado RZ, Navarro IT. Toxoplasma gondii: detection by mouse bioassay, histopathology, and polymerase chain reaction in tissues from experimentally infected pigs. Exp Parasitol. 2006; 113(4): 267-71
da Silva AV, Langoni H. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii by comparing cytology, histopathology, bioassay in mice, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vet Parasitol. 2001; 97(3):191-8.
Masala G, Porcu R, Madau L, Tanda A, Ibba B, Satta G, Tola S. Survey of ovine and caprine toxoplasmosis by IFAT and PCR assays in Sardinia, Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2003; 117(1-2):15-21.
Ghorbani M, Hafizi A, Shegerfcar MT, Rezaian M, Nadim A, Anwar M, Afshar A. Animal toxoplasmosis in Iran. J Trop Med Hyg. 1983; 86(2): 73-6.
Hoghooghi-Rad N, Afraa M. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in humans and domestic animals in Ahwaz, capital of Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. J Trop Med Hyg. 1993; 96 (3):163-8.
Hashemi-Fesharki R. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle, sheep and goats in Iran. Vet Parasitol. 1996; 61(1-2):1-3.
Navidpour S, Hoghooghi-rad N. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in buffaloes in Khuzestan province, Iran. Vet Parasitol. 1998; 77 (2-3): 191-4.
Sharif M, Gholami Sh, Ziaei H, Daryani A, Laktarashi B, Ziapour SP, Rafiei A, Vahedi M. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered for food in Mazandaran province, Iran, during 2005. Vet J. 2007; 174(2): 422-4.
Ghazaei C. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Afr J Health Sci. 2006; 13(1-2): 131-4.
Müller N, Zimmermann V, Hentrich B, Gottstein B. Diagnosis of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by PCR and DNA hybridization immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 1996; 34(11):2850-2.
OIE Terrestrial Manual 2008. Chapter 2.9.10.Toxoplasmosis. www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Healt h.../2.09.10_TOXO.pdf
Masihi KN, Werner H. Immunization of NMRI mice against virulent Toxoplasma gondii. Differing efficacy of eleven cystforming Toxoplasma strains. Z Parasitenkd. 1977; 54(3): 209-16.
Dubey JP, Shen SK, Kwok OC, Frenkel JK. Infection and immunity with the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii in rats and mice. J Parasitol. 1999; 85(4): 657-62.
Evans R, Chatterton JMW, Ashburn D, Joss AWL, Ho-Yen DO. Cell-Culture System for Continuous Production of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999; 18: 879–884
Sambrook J, Fritsch EF and Maniatis T. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Volume 3, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1989. B.16.
Grigg ME, Boothroyd JC. Rapid identification of virulent type I strains of the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis at the B1 gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39(1): 398-400.
Handan A. The significance of histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, Turk J Med Res; 1992; 10(6): 314-320
Esteban-Redondo I, Maley SW, Thomson K, Nicoll S, Wright S, Buxton D, Innes EA. Detection of T. gondii in tissues of sheep and cattle following oral infection. Vet Parasitol. 1999; 86(3):155-171.
Brucellosis in Sheep and Goats Brucella melitensis (2001) European Commission Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-general Directorate C - Scientific HealthOpinions., (ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scah/out59_en.pdf).
Sharifiyazdi H, Haghkhah M, Behroozikhah AM, and Nematgorgani E. Bacteriological and molecular investigation of B. melitensis in dairy cows in Iran. 2010 DOI: 10.1007/s00580-010-1090-6
Cook AJ, Gilbert RE, Buffolano W, Zufferey J, Petersen E, Jenum PA, Foulon W, Semprini AE, Dunn DT. Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. BMJ. 2000; 321(7254):142-7.
Chumpitazi BF, Boussaid A, Pelloux H, Racinet C, Bost M, Goullier-Fleuret A. Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by immunoblotting and relationship with other methods. J Clin Microbiol. 1995; 33(6):1479-85.
Filisetti, D., M. Gorcii, E. Pernot-Marino, O. Villard, and E. Candolfi. Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparison of targets for detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41: 4826- 4828.
Homan WL, M Vercammen, J De Braekeleer, and H Verschueren. Identification of a 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in Toxoplasma gondii, and its use for diagnostic and quantitative PCR. Int J Parasitol. 2000; 30: 69-75.
Liesenfeld O, JG Montoya, S Kinney, C Press, and JS Remington. Effect of testing for IgG avidity in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women: experience in a US reference laboratory. J Infect Dis. 2001; 183: 1248-1253.
Montoya A, Miró G, Mateo M, Ramírez C, Fuentes I. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cats by comparing bioassay in mice and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vet Parasitol. 2009; 160(1-2):159-62.
Asgari Q, Sarnevesht J, Kalantari M, Sadat SJ, Motazedian MH, Sarkari B. Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, Southern Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011; 43(2): 389-92.
Razmi GR, Ghezi K, Mahooti A, Naseri Z. A serological study and subsequent isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from aborted ovine fetuses in Mashhad area, Iran. J Parasitol. 2010; 96(4): 812-4.
Zia-Ali N, Fazaeli A, Khoramizadeh M, Ajzenberg D, Darde´ M, Keshavarz- Valian H. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains from different hosts in Iran. Parasitol Res. 2007; 101: 111–115.
Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis in sheep--the last 20 years. Vet Parasitol. 2009; 163(1- 2):1-14.
Fuentes I, Rubio JM, Ramírez C, Alvar J. Genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain: direct analysis from clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39(4):1566-70.
Su C, Zhang X, Dubey JP. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii by multilocus PCRRFLP markers: a high resolution and simple method for identification of parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2006; 36(7):841-8.
Derouin F., Sarfati C.,Beauvais B., Iliou M.-C., Dehen L., Lariviere M. Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 1989; 27:1661–1663.
Derouin F, Mazeron M C, and Garin Y J Comparative study of tissue culture and mouse inoculation methods for demonstrat- ion of Toxoplasma gondii. J Clin Microbiol. 1987; 25(9): 1597–1600.